Testing the Amaye Blog System again

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Testing the Amaye Blog System

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Join the Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher Training this August!

Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher Training (AMYTT)

Professional yoga development and personal growth

August 3 - 24, 2019 (Arrival August 2, Departure August 25)

AMYTT is a 200-hour teacher-training program that provides immersion into a lifestyle of inner joy and universal love. Our training program teaches yoga as a transformational tool for spiritual awakening and betterment of the human society. This inspiring and comprehensive yoga training will deepen your personal practice and give you the tools to teach yoga to others.

Through this training you can: • Deepen your personal yoga and meditation practice • Immerse yourself in an authentic yogic lifestyle • Learn how to teach a professional yoga class safely and effectively • Enjoy the support of a vibrant spiritual community • Understand the philosophical foundation that supports a yoga practice • Further your own physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual growth and well-being

Don't let your friends miss this opportunity, share the event on Facebook.

Accredited by Yoga Alliance Graduates of AMYTT receive internationally recognized certification. AMYTT is certified by Yoga Alliance for the 200-hour standard for Registered Yoga Schools (RYS).

Training level and content The AMYTC program is open to yoga students of all levels, providing all participants with a strong foundation in yogic practices and philosophy from the Ananda Marga Tantra Yoga tradition. Experienced and professional faculty facilitate a strong and supportive learning environment that integrates postural yoga with anatomy, physiology, philosophy, cosmology, subtle anatomy, and effective teaching methods.

Specifically, the curriculum includes: • Asana technique • Preparatory poses and modifications • Techniques to assist students to practice safely and with a good energetic alignment • Anatomy and physiology • The 8-limbed path of Astaunga Yoga, including spiritual ethics, breath control and meditation techniques • Relaxation techniques • Subtle anatomy and models of mind (chakras, koshas and prana) • Teaching methodology • Tantra history, philosophy and cosmology, including the philosophy of embodiment • Chanting • Self-massage

Trainers Dada Vishvarupananda, MSc, E-RYT 200, RYT 500. Dada has been a monk in the Ananda Marga tradition for over 27 years and has given personal instruction to numerous aspirants during that time. Dada has received additional training with Ananda and Kripalu, and has a Master's degree in Yoga Therapy. He has been teaching professionally since 2000 including college credit classes at George Washington University. He has facilitated numerous retreats and yoga teacher training programs throughout the world.

Dada Krsnasevananda E-RYT 200 Dada is a senior monk of Ananda Marga with 40 years experience teaching meditation and yoga around the world. Dada is currently the head teacher and program coordinator at Ananda Gaorii Ashram in Denmark and hosts a long-running and popular meditation course at the Ananda Marga center in Copenhagen.

Daily Schedule Every day promises a full schedule with a comprehensive curriculum that includes plenty of opportunities for multi-dimensional learning and hands-on teaching.

6.00 Wake up 6:45- 8.00 Yoga class 8.00-9.00 Collective chanting and meditation 9.00-10.00 Breakfast + karma yoga (community service) 10.00-12:30 Workshop 12.30 Individual meditation 13.00-15.00 Lunch, free time 15.00-17.30 Workshop 17:30-18.00 Free time 18.00-19.00 Collective chanting and meditation 19.00-20.00 Dinner 20.00-21.30 Workshop 21:30 Good night!

Note: Silence is observed from 6 to 10 AM

Accommodation Ananda Gaori is located in rolling farmland that provides clean air, inspiring views and healthy walks. Accommodation includes dormitories and grassy fields for camping. Participants should bring their own sheets, sleeping bag, etc. Those who need more privacy and peace (and loud snorers) are encouraged to bring their own tent and camp.

Registration To register you must pay the advanced booking fee (750 Dkk) or the full amount and then fill out the registration form (see link below). The full amount must be paid no later than July 20. The advanced booking fee is non-refundable. Cancellations prior to July 20 will be refunded the amount paid minus the advanced booking fee. Cancellations after July 20 will be refunded by half the amount.

Click on this link to register (Note: Please only register after paying the deposit or the full amount):

Cost Normal Price: 14,000 Danish Krone Early Bird price for registrations before 01 April: 11,000 Danish Krone

Students, Unemployed, People traveling from outside Europe: 12,000 Danish Krone (10,000 before 01 April)

How to Pay: By PayPal to By MobilePay to 10373 By Bank Transfer: Account Information Account name: Ananda Marga DK Kurser/Courses. Bank: Jyske Bank Account No.: 5018-0001348611 Swift/Bic: JYBADKKK IBAN: DK2350180001348611 NB! Please include the words "Yoga Teacher Training" in the message line.

Meditation in Schools

Research conducted by the University of Melbourne in Australia showed that meditation in schools promoted wellbeing, cognitive functioning and academic achievement of students.

Educ Psychol Rev (2015) 27:103-134 DOI 10.1007/s10648-014-9258-2 Contemplative Education: A Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of the effect of Meditation Interventions in Schools Lea Waters & Adam Barsky & Amanda Ridd & Kelly Allen Published online: 4 March 2014

The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at

Abstract Schools need reliable evidence about the outcomes of meditation programs before they consider if and how such programmes can influence learning agendas, curriculum and timetables. This paper reviewed evidence from 15 peer-reviewed studies of school meditation programmes with respect to three student outcomes: well-being, social competence and academic achievement. In total, there were 76 results where effect sizes could be calculated. The overall number of participants in the effect size analyses was 1,797. Of the 76 effect sizes calculated, 61 % were statistically significant. Sixty-seven per cent of the results had small effects on student outcomes, 24 % of the results had medium effect strength and 9 % showed a large effect of meditation upon student outcomes. Transcendental meditation programmes had a higher percentage of significant effects than mindfulness-based and other types of meditation programmes, but this may be to do with the settings and programme delivery rather than the technique itself. Programme elements such as duration, frequency of practice and type of instructor influenced student outcomes. A conceptual model is put forward based on two propositions: proposition 1-meditation positively influences student success by increasing cognitive functioning; proposition 2-meditation positively influences student success by increasing emotional regulation. Suggestions are made to stimulate future research and to assist in the development of more efficacious applications for meditation in schools.

Hygiene of Emotion should be taught to children, says Dalai lama

we need education, not prayer.

we need to learn to overcome anger,hatred, jealousy and fear.

message of love, forgiveness, tolerance,compassion, self-discipline,... all religions say the same !!

Rituals without compassion is of little value. we need secular ethics. Antidote of selfcenterdness is love.

Meditation and Health

Looking under the hood with fMRI, scientists have found that mindfulness meditation activates a network of brain regions that includes the insula (associated with compassion, empathy and self-awareness), the putamen (learning) and portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (regulating blood pressure, heart rate and other autonomic functions) and the prefrontal cortex (the hub of higher-order thinking skills such as planning, decision-making and moderating social behaviour).

When it comes to actual structural changes in the brain, some studies suggest that mindfulness meditation may increase grey matter density in the hippocampus, a brain region essential to memory. Researchers including Britta Hölzel, now at the Technical University of Munich, and Sara Lazar of Massachusetts General Hospital found evidence for this in a 2011 study. Two studies by Creswell and his colleagues, one in 2015 and the other in 2016, offer some initial findings that seem to support their view of mindfulness meditation as a buffer against stress. Both studies focused on the physiological effects of mindfulness mediation training on small groups of unemployed adults experiencing stress.

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12 Ánanda Márga Yoga Academy of Argentina By José Luis Ferrero <img class="alignright" style="margin-left: 15px;" alt="" src="" width="340" height="255" /> Due to the spreading of yoga in the west, in the last decade, more people are interested in learning this ancient practice. As a consequence, the level of highly trained instructors is on demand in order to teach it properly. For years, the physical part was one of the most widespread aspects of yoga. Many schools and different styles have emerged that are focused on physical practices. Beyond the great benefits obtained by the ásanas or physical postures, many persons have begun to truly understand yoga is much more than just working out, and its major potentiality remains in those unique spiritual and mental techniques of all around development, as well in a particular vision of the universe. Then began a new stage characterized by the need for well-prepared instructors to teach the philosophic and mystic aspects of yoga. The challenge became training as many people as possible in the deepest and subtlest aspects of yoga so they could transmit the physical, mental and spiritual knowledge well. In Ánanda Márga Argentina, the training of yoga teachers goes back to the 80’s. Several ácáryas (teachers of Ananda Marga) were devoted to this task and through their dedication and personal effort many yoga teachers were trained according to Ánanda Márga system. Personally, I participated as a teacher of some of these courses in 1985, 1986 and 2006. However, in recent years emerged the need to systematize and refine these courses to suit the new demands for excellence and quality of modern life. With this inspiration, we began working with Dada Ramashrayananda in 2010 in order to create AYAM, the Academy of Yoga of Ánanda Márga Yoga Argentina. The main objectives of this project include: 1. Provide comprehensive training in Ra´ja´dhira´ja Yoga, including Spiritual Philosophy, Social Philosophy, Biopsychology and the fundamental principles of Neohumanism and PROUT. 2. Train yoga teachers who are living according to the principles of yoga, and particularly of Ánanda Márga, teaching by their own example and conduct. 3. Develop a common curriculum adapted to psychology and the social reality of Argentinean students, according to AMYA and AMGK standards. 4. Work in coordination with acaryas from other countries, especially Brazil, to create a common curriculum and a South American Network of Academies of Yoga. 5. Get the official recognition of Yoga as a science included in standard education. A very important step for us has been our Ananda Marga Gurukula affiliation, allowing us to work in coordination with Ananda Marga Yoga Academy of Singapore and providing to our Academy more hierarchy and the prestigious International AMGK support. For this achievement we got the invaluable collaboration of Dada Shankarsan'ananda, to whom we are deeply grateful. There is still a long way to go, that never really ends, in our pursuit of academic excellence and the best service to society. We hope to carry out this task with maximum efficiency, so it can be continued by those who come after us, carrying the universal message of Shrii P. R. Sarkar all over the world. May 30, 2012 post
25 Prama Institute News, Asheville, USA Spring 2012 <img class="alignnone" alt="" src="" width="724" height="105" /> <p class="image_right"><img class="alignright" style="margin-left: 15px;" alt="" src="" width="240" height="180" /></p> The Prama Institute’s Center of Neohumanist Studies (CNS) continues to grow in the direction of creating more of its own programs while continuing to attract a large repeat rental business from the yoga community. Additions to our own programs include the construction of a new Wellness Center that is a part of a global network of Ananda Marga Wellness Centers that started in the Philippines under the direction of Dada Dharmavedananda. This new Wellness Center opening in June of 2012 will include residential programs for individuals interested in holistic life style changes that include changes in their diet and detoxification of body and mind through the practices of fasting, steam baths, mud baths, asanas, meditation, chanting, journaling, hikes and seminars on nutrition and meditation. Clients for this new Wellness Center will be able to come for individually designed residential programs to improve their mental and physical wellbeing. <img class="alignleft" style="margin-right: 10px;" title="Dada Dharmavedananda" alt="Dada Dharmavedananda" src="" width="175" height="131" />Upcoming program: Yoga Detox and Rejuvenation Retreat, with Dada Dharmavedananda and Ramesh Bjonnes. June 11-17, 2012. Another new Prama Institute program is Yummy Yoga, which combines yoga practice with learning about gourmet vegetarian cuisine from our stellar cooks. The other popular program we offer repeatedly is the Yoga of Silence which has the profound effect of helping individuals conquer the monkey mind and reveal their inner most passions and break the chains of old attachments. <a style="text-decoration: none; font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 11px; color: #333333;" href=""><img class="alignright" style="margin-left: 15px;" alt="" src="" width="330" height="425" border="0" /></a>There are a large number of yoga groups, yoga therapy organizations, healers, and community activist groups that continue to return yearly to an environment and staff at Prama that they have grown to love because we share the same aspirations of service to the community and spiritual advancement. Some of these people have been instructed in Ananda Marga meditation while at Prama and return often for further lessons. Those who live locally attend ongoing meditation classes run by the Prama Institute staff. This year along with expansion of programs we want to attract families and individuals who can contribute to our community and Prama Institute as a place to live and work. For a full listing of upcoming programs and reports of past events please visit their <a href="" target="_blank">website</a>. May 15, 2012 post
54 On Mushrooms Are Mushrooms the panacea? Ananda Marga Yoga thinks it otherwise. Even though they may have some medicinal properties but to present it as a cure -all will be a dangerous prescription. Mushrooms are tamasika and not conducive for sentient living. Yet, they have a great role to play in recycling wastes and destroying toxicity etc. <a title="" href=""></a> Mycologist Paul Stamets lists 6 ways the mycelium fungus can help save the universe: cleaning polluted soil, making insecticides, treating smallpox and even flu Entrepreneurial mycologist Paul Stamets seeks to rescue the study of mushrooms from forest gourmets and psychedelic warlords. The focus of Stamets' research is the Northwest's native fungal genome, mycelium, but along the way he has filed 22 patents for mushroom-related technologies, including pesticidal fungi that trick insects into eating them, and mushrooms that can break down the neurotoxins used in nerve gas.There are cosmic implications as well. Stamets believes we could terraform other worlds in our galaxy by sowing a mix of fungal spores and other seeds to create an ecological footprint on a new planet.p&gt; According to Dr. Mercola: Some of the most potent immunosupportive agents come from mushrooms, and science is just beginning to tap into this vast natural medicine warehouse. There are mushrooms that kill viruses, mushrooms that kill bacteria, and even mushrooms that kill yeast—which may surprise you, given they're both fungi. Some mushrooms destroy cancer cells, and others facilitate nerve regeneration. Fungi are incredibly resilient, even surviving radioactivity. They can actually harness radiation to thrive, as was found by a robot sent to map the inside of the entombed Chernobyl nuclear reactor in 1999. The robot found a hardy fungus chowing down on 200 tons of melted radioactive fuel. In addition to bringing us nutrition and powerful medicine, mushrooms offer great benefits for the planet. You may be surprised to learn that mushrooms have the following green applications: Eradication of carpenter ants by producing a pesticide that tricks the ants into eating it Producing a low carbon footprint type of ethanol Breaking down the neurotoxins in nerve gas Producing a fully compostable fungal-based packing material that could potentially replace plastics and styrofoam Bioremediation: Cleaning up waste from petroleum, toxic chemicals (PCBs, TNT), and bacteria such as E. coli Of the 140,000 species of mushroom-forming fungi, science is familiar with only 10 percent, according to world-renown mycologist Paul Stamets in "The Most Powerful Medicine in Nature". About 100 species are being studied for their health-promoting benefits. Of those hundred, about a half dozen really stand out for their ability to deliver a tremendous boost to your immune system. I'd like to share some information with you today about a few of the rock stars of Kingdom Fungi. Some of these were discussed in my interview with Steve Farrar, who has worked and studied mushrooms professionally for the last 30 years. If you missed that informative interview, I highly recommend listening to it as well. But first, you need a little understanding about how mushrooms grow and what makes them so unique. Mycelium: Mother Nature's Internet Mushrooms are nature's recycling system. If it weren't for mushrooms, we wouldn't have plants, because mushrooms (and their "parent" mycelium) break down rocks and organic matter, turning them into soil that provides the framework to nourish plants.. Mushrooms are actually only the fruiting body of a more vast fungal form—the mycelium. The mycelium is a fascinating cobweb-like mat that infuses nearly all landscapes. It is through the mycelium that the fungus absorbs nutrients from the environment. When two compatible mycelia combine, the resulting mycelium occasionally forms fruiting bodies called mushrooms. The mushrooms make spores, which fly away to make new mycelial colonies, and the lifecycle is complete. Mycelial mats can be too small to see or cover vast areas of ground. Their extreme tenacity makes the soil spongy and able to support 30,000 times its weight. A single cubic inch of soil can contain 8 miles of mycelium cells. The largest living organism on Earth is a mycelium in Eastern Oregon that covers 2,200 acres, is ONE cell wall thick and 2,000 years old. Paul Stamets believes fungal mycelia and the intricate, branching network they form function as "the Earth's Internet," a complex communication highway that is sort of Mother Nature's neural net. In some ways, mycelia are "sentient" and seem to demonstrate learning. If one pathway is broken, it develops an alternate path. According to Stamets, when you step on it, it knows you're there and "leaps up" in the aftermath of your footstep, trying to grab debris. The mycelia—not JUST the mushrooms—contain many of the healing agents for which mushrooms are revered. Hanging with Fungi Increases Your Odds of Survival We're more closely related to fungi than we are to any other kingdom. We share the same pathogens, meaning bacteria and viruses. As a defense against bacterial invasion, fungi have developed strong antibiotics, which also happen to be effective for us humans. Penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline all come from fungal extracts. The predominant mushrooms displaying antiviral activities are the polypores, sometimes called bracket fungi or woody conks, tough and fibrous fungi characterized by many tiny holes on the underside of their caps. Polypores have been dubbed the "frontier" of new medicines and are thought to be the ancestors to most of the gilled mushrooms. Interestingly, there are no known poisonous polypores, whereas there are more than one hundred poisonous gilled mushrooms. Paul Stamets recently discovered that a very rare polypore called Agaricon is effective against the poxviruses—including smallpox. This has the Department of Defense very interested, as smallpox is one of the most feared bioterrorism agents. Agaricon was also found to be effective against flu viruses. History tells us that living in cooperation with fungi will increase our odds of survival. After major extinction events, it was the fungi that thrived because they didn't need light and lived on dead organic matter. Organisms pairing with fungi flourished, and those that didn't fared poorly. Many of the mushrooms valued for strong medicinal properties grow on trees, as opposed to the ground dwellers you've likely seen. These tree fungi concentrate the unique elements that the host tree has absorbed over its lifetime, which may be ten or twenty or even HUNDREDS of years. Many of these mushroom species are long-term residents of Old Growth Forests and play an essential role in nutrient recycling by decomposing old trees. The mushroom wraps itself around these special nutrients, capturing them in the fruiting body of the organism and turning it into a little medicinal powerhouse. Maybe it's time for us to embrace the mushroom and harness it's medicine the way the Asians have done for thousands of years. Blends of Mushrooms are More Effective Than any One Mushroom Alone It is therapeutically best to utilize a blend of several mushroom species, because "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts." For one thing, it is easier for pathogens in your body to adapt and become resistant to one mushroom than to several. Secondly, each mushroom species has a unique arsenal of anti-infective and immunomodulating agents. These special agents include: Polysaccharides Glycoproteins Ergosterols (steroid-like compounds that create vitamin D in sunlight) Triterpenoids You might have heard the term "beta glucans." The agents listed above are precursors to the more complex compounds, beta glucans. It is the synergism between ALL of these elements that makes mushrooms so medicinally powerful when consumed as a whole food—mycelium included. Because mushrooms have such powerful immune-boosting effects, it isn't surprising that some have great potential for battling cancer. Mushrooms with anti-tumor activity appear to increase the number and activity of killer T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, with no toxicity to healthy cells. Cancer cells are notorious for "hiding" from chemo agents. New research has shown that certain mushroom extracts help chemotherapy drugs better locate and identify cancer cells by "uncloaking them," thereby making chemo more effective. This is getting some open-minded oncologists very excited! Medicinal mushrooms also strengthen your immune system if you are undergoing chemo, so cancer patients get a double benefit. The list of health benefits science is revealing to us about mushrooms is still growing, but thus far includes the following: Increased longevity Improved blood flow Cholesterol and blood sugar normalization Liver protection, including protection from adverse effects of alcohol consumption Kidney support Antiviral (including HIV), antibacterial, and antifungal properties Destruction of cancer cells; improved outcomes for people receiving chemo and radiation Improved respiratory illnesses, including asthma Reduced risk for heart disease, decreased platelet aggregation and improved blood flow Nerve regeneration (Lion's Mane mushroom) Improved skin and hair Increased sexual function and athletic ability It's important to eat ONLY organically grown mushrooms. Remember, what makes mushrooms so potent is that they absorb and concentrate whatever they grow in—good OR bad. Mushrooms are known to concentrate heavy metals, and air and water pollutants. Now that you have the overview, let's take a look at a few of my favorite health-enhancing mushroom species. We'll start with a delicious little mushroom you have probably seen on your dinner plate or at your local market—the shiitake. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) Shiitake is a popular culinary mushroom used in dishes around the world. It contains a number of health-stimulating agents, including lentinan, the polysaccharide for which it was named. Lentinan has been isolated and used to treat stomach and other cancers due to its antitumor properties, but has also been found to protect your liver, relieve other stomach ailments (hyperacidity, gallstones, ulcers), anemia, ascites, and pleural effusion. One of the more remarkable scientific studies demonstrating shiitake's antitumor effect was a Japanese animal study, where mice suffering from sarcoma were given shiitake extract. Six of 10 mice had complete tumor regression, and with slightly higher concentrations, all ten mice showed complete tumor regression. Shiitake mushrooms also demonstrate antiviral (including HIV, hepatitis, and the "common cold"), antibacterial, and antifungal effects; blood sugar stabilization; reduced platelet aggregation; and reduced atherosclerosis. Shiitake also contains eritadenine, which has strong cholesterol-lowering properties. Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) Reishi is known as Lingzhi in China, or "spirit plant." It's also been called "Mushroom of Immortality"—a nickname that kind of says it all. Reishi has been used medicinally in Asia for thousands of years. One of its more useful compounds is ganoderic acid (a triterpenoid), which is being used to treat lung cancer, leukemia and other cancers. The list of Reishi's health benefits includes the following Antibacterial, antiviral (Herpes, Epstein-Barr), antifungal (including Candida) properties Antiinflammatory, useful for reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis Immune system up-regulation Normalization of blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure Reduction of prostate-related urinary symptoms in men Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) Cordyceps, also called caterpillar fungus or Tochukasu, is a favorite of athletes because it increases ATP production, strength and endurance, and has anti-aging effects. This parasitic mushroom is unique because, in the wild, it grows out of an insect host instead of a plant host. Cordyceps has an enduring history in both traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Cordyceps has hypoglycemic and possible antidepressant effects, protects your liver and kidneys, increases blood flow, helps normalize your cholesterol levels, and has been used to treat Hepatitis B. It has antitumor properties as well. Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor) Turkey Tail is also known as Coriolis, or "cloud mushroom." Science is showing that Turkey Tail mushroom holds an arsenal of cancer-blasting compounds. Two polysaccharide complexes in Turkey Tail are getting a great deal of scientific attention, PSK (or "Kreskin") and PSP, making it the most extensively researched of all medicinal mushrooms with large scale clinical trials. A seven-year, $2 million NIH-funded clinical study in 2011 found that Turkey Tail mycelium improves immune function when dosed daily to women with stage I–III breast cancer. Immune response was dose-dependent, with no adverse effects. In addition to breast cancer, Turkey Tail has been found to hold promise for other cancers, including stomach, colorectal, lung, esophageal, nasopharyngeal, cervical, and uterine. PSP has been shown to significantly enhance immune status in 70 to 97 percent of cancer patients. Turkey tail is also being used to treat many different infections, including aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, E. coli, HIV, Herpes, and streptococcus pneumonia, and is hepatoprotective. It may also be useful for CFIDS. Himematsutake (Agaricus blazei) The last mushroom I'd like to mention is the newcomer on the block: Himematsutake, also called Royal Sun Agaricus, a relative of the common button mushroom. Himematsutake was not cultivated in the East until fairly recently but is now a very popular natural medicine, used by almost a half million Japanese. Himematsutake mushroom is attracting many scientists worldwide due to its remarkable anticancer properties related to six special polysaccharides. Like many other medicinal mushrooms, this fungus can also protect you from the damaging effects of radiation and chemotherapy. But its benefits don't stop there—Himematsutake can also decrease insulin resistance in diabetics, normalize your cholesterol, improve your hair and skin, and even treat polio. There are many more mushrooms deserving mention—far too many to include here. But at least you can begin to appreciate the scope of benefits mushrooms have to offer, based on the handful of examples above. Final Thoughts A carefully designed blend of medicinal fungi can deliver a powerful therapeutic punch, whether you just wish to help protect yourself from seasonal colds or flu, or you have a more serious condition such as cancer. Either way, these special mushrooms can be an excellent adjunct to a healthful diet and lifestyle to improve your immune health. If you are interested in more information about medicinal mushrooms, you might consider visiting the following sites: is an encyclopedia of medicinal mushrooms with a searchable database, abundant resources and fungi photos is another encyclopedic database with information about many of the medicinal mushrooms can help you with mushroom identification Paul Stamets' YouTube video channel has about 30 videos of wild mushroom hunts and all sorts of informational videos, including mushroom identification and cultivation References: Cosmos Magazine TED with Eben Bayer: Are mushrooms the new plastic? July 2010 "The Most Powerful Medicine in Nature," an interview with David Wolfe (Booklet, 2009) Polypore Primer GreenMedInfo J Cancer Research 1970 J Nutrition August 1995 Life Sci December 2006 Am J Chin. Med. 2010 Fungi Perfecti LLC Mico Nutri Altern Med Rev 2000 SB3. July 29, 2011 post
56 Yoga from the Man without Bones <a title=";v=PGBvxUABH3Y#" href=";v=PGBvxUABH3Y#">;v=PGBvxUABH3Y#</a>! Yoga from the Man without Bones March 29, 2012 post
60 About keeping long hairs <a title="" href=""></a> Shaving beards also has also an impact on our nervous system. WE can feel the irritation right away. But never heard before that cutting hair affects our sensitivity and tracking ability. March 29, 2012 post
63 Cyber Yoga Classes Dada Rasabuddhanandaji is offering yoga classes via skype to anywhere in the world. The timings are pre-fixed and so far the response from Taiwan yoga class is fantastic. The students enjoy the expert guidance of the teacher even from thousands of miles away. It works best if there is one local teacher to help out with the class. For further interest, please contact March 29, 2012 post
64 Yoga for All Dada Vimaleshanandaji invites one and all to <a href="">Yoga for All updates</a> on Facebook. Dada Vimaleshanandaji invites one and all to <a href="">Yoga for All updates</a> on Facebook. March 29, 2012 post
66 Three ways to view Yogic History Author: Ramesh Bjonnes Yogic history is a blending of Tantric and Vedic traditions. Indian civilization was born about 11,000 years ago, during or shortly after Neolithic farming settlements were established in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, during the period referred to as the cradle of civilization. Recent research into this important period of history has revealed that India was, in so many ways, also the cradle of human civilization, not just geographically and culturally, but also spiritually. For South Asia, including India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, was one of the first areas on the planet where people settled to farm and create urbanized city complexes on a considerable scale. In Mehrgarh, for example, an area in today’s Pakistan, wheat, barley and eggplant were cultivated, sheep and cattle were domesticated, and people lived in cities as early as nine thousand years ago (7000 BCE). India was also the birthplace of the world’s first great religions, Buddhism and Jainism. More significantly, long before the birth of Buddha (500 BCE), India had already developed the sophisticated sciences of yoga, meditation, Ayurvedic medicine, and the world’s most advanced and sacred language, namely Sanskrit. While there is general agreement among scholars regarding the antiquity of India’s civilization, there is less agreement about how and when it developed its sophisticated culture and sacred traditions. There are currently three main theories on ancient Indian history: 1. Most Western and Indian academics hold the view that India was invaded by Vedic Aryan settlers around 1900 BCE. These Aryans worshiped the sun god Suria and brought with them their Rigvedic religion based on sacrifices and rituals offered to “placate and please the Gods, [and] to force them to fulfill wishes and demands.” These patriarchal and martial Aryans soon conquered northern India and destroyed the great Indus Valley civilization, where yoga was already practiced by Tantric (Shaeva) ascetics. They massacred populations and reduced the surviving Dravidian shudras to slavery (dasyu) without regard for rank or learning. This conflict has been described in the famous epics Mahabharta and the Ramayana. Over time, India became a blended civilization—par Aryan Vedic, part Dravidian Shaeva, with a liberal admixture of Jain and Buddhist traditions—and this blended culture is what we today know as Hindu civilization. 2. Western yoga scholars, including Georg Feuerstein and David Frawley, as well as some Indian writers, especially within the fundamentalist Hindutva movement, subscribe to the theory that there was never an Aryan invasion around 1900 BCE and that Yoga comes solely from the Vedic tradition. This “One River Theory” proclaims that the Indus Valley was not destroyed by Aryan warrior but instead by climatic changes. According to these writers, the Aryans are indigenous to India and represent everything that is noble about Indian culture. In their book In Search of the Cradle of Civilization, Feuerstein and Frawley outline 17 points for why the invasion never took place. In one of these points, however, they reflect on the possibility that the Aryan settlers arrived in India at a much earlier date. 3. This last option brings us to my own “Two River Theory,” that the history of Yoga represents a blend of the Tantric and Vedic traditions of India. According to Puranic history as well as recent genetic science discoveries, the Vedic Aryans arrived in India at an early age, most likely as early as 7-5000 BCE. Therefore the blending of the Vedic and Tantric (Shaeva) cultures of India had already matured by the time the Indus Valley civilization was destroyed and depopulated around 2000 BCE. Not long after, around 1500 BCE, India produced the world’s first coherent philosophy and cosmology, namely sage Kapila’s Tantric-inspired Samkhya philosophy, which today is popularly known as the philosophy of Ayurveda, India’s ancient medical science. About 700 years after Kapila, some of the greatest spiritual literature the world has ever witnessed, namely the oral teachings in the epic Mahabharata, the Vedantic Upanishads, the spiritual teachings of the Gita, and the historical mythology of the Ramayana were written down for the first time. And around 200 BCE, sage Patanjali wrote his Yoga Sutras and codified the oral teachings of the Tantric yogis for the first time in the form of Asthanga, or Raja Yoga. While these three versions of Indian history may seem entirely at odds, there are important overlapping agreements, and the theories do in many ways compliment each other. The first theory has dated the Aryan invasion rather late (1900 BCE) and does not reflect the genetic research of Dr. Spencer Wells, who claims the invasion started much earlier—about 7-5000 BCE. As suggested as a possibility by Feuerstein and Frawley—proponents of theory number two—this migration started when the Rig Vedic Aryans arrived via the Russian steppes and the deserts of Iran more than 3000 years before the Indus Valley eventually was abandoned. Indeed, in Feuerstein’s new version of his book The Yoga Tradition, he suggests the Indo-European Aryans arrived in India as early as 6500 BCE, which is exactly what genetic science has concluded. Looking for better pastures for their cattle, and for other riches, these skilled warrior nomads arrived in successive raids and migrations over a period of several millennia. Genetic science and archeology have determined they arrived in an already inhabited land, and its peoples—the Dravidians, Mongolians and Austrics—had already developed a sophisticated, urban culture, and the art and science of Tantric Yoga was already in practice among them. In other words, by the time the Indus Valley was finally abandoned around 1900 BCE, the indigenous Indians and the invading Aryans had already experienced 3000 years of conflict and gradual integration. Hence these peoples, representing different civilizations, cultures and outlooks—one we may term Vedic/Priestly, and one we may term Tantric/Yogic—gradually formed what we today know as the Indian, or Hindu Civilization. Of these two rivers, the Vedic is primarily ritualistic and religious, while the Tantric is primarily empirical and spiritual, while Hinduism represent a blend of these two traditions. Together these two traditions have also influenced and formed the foundation of what we practice as yoga today. But Tantra has by far been the most influential in shaping the practice of both physical and meditative yoga. In the words of Swami Satyananda Saraswati: “The yoga we know today was developed as part of the tantric civilization which existed in India…more than 10,000 years ago. In archeological excavations made in the Indus Valley at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, now in modern Pakistan, many statues have been found depicting deities resembling Lord Shiva and Parvati performing various asanas and practicing meditation.” august 21, 2011 post
69 Yoga Nature (USA) embraces Ananda Marga Yoga <div><a title="" href=""></a> (Radio Talk Show with Dr. Pannu). Dr. Sachin Deshmukh of Yoga Nature Studio in California has initiated a series of events to bring the message of Ananda Marga Yoga to wider population. Recently, Dr. Shambhushivananda of Sweden Yoga Teachers Training Centre was hosted for a radio-program (Dr. Pannu's talk show), video filming event and a lecture at the University of Berkeley Student Union Building. Dr. Shambhushivananda has been on a tour of Phoenix, Los Angeles, Bay area, Hawaii Islands (Honolulu and Maui) , New York etc. <a title="" href=""></a> </div> March 29, 2011 post
71 Yoga Therapy in Lisbon & Madeira Island, Portugal <b style="color: #222222;"><i><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><b style="color: #222222;"><i><span><a style="color: #1155cc;" href="" target="_blank">www.amyogaterapia.blogspot.<wbr />pt</a></span></i></b></span></i></b> <b style="color: #222222;"><i><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;">Dr. Marta Antunes MD &amp; Yoga Physician, is a </span><span style="text-decoration: underline;">medical doctor</span><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"> who has been, for the last 7 years, successfully using the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yoga Medical Science</span><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"> to treat many physical and psychological diseases. Envisioning the establishment of the first </span><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yoga Medical Hospital</span><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"> in the West, Dr. Antunes follows patients from Portugal and abroad. Please read more about this holistic medical work at <a style="color: #1155cc;" href="" target="_blank">www.amyogaterapia.blogspot.<wbr />pt</a>. E-mail:<a style="color: #1155cc;" href="" target="_blank"></a>. Facebook: Rajadhiraja Yogaterapia"</span></i></b> March 29, 2011 post
73 70 Questions and Answers on Prabhata Samgiita: Shambhushivananda Q1: How many and which languages have the songs of PS been composed? A: A total of 5018 songs were composed by Shrii P.R.Sarkar in eight languages viz., Bengali, Samskrta, Hindi, Urdu, English, Maethali, Angika, Magahi. A total of about 40 songs were composed in languages other than Bengali. 5018 songs of PS were composed in a total of 8 years,1 month and 7 days (2957 days).He gave 62 songs while in the nursing home in Kolkata. and composed 602 songs in Madhu Koraka in Tiljala, Kolkata.3749 songs were composed in Madhu Malainca in Lake Gardens MG Quarter, Kolkata. Q2: Where and when was the first and last song of PS composed? A: The first song was composed on September 14,1982 in Deogarh (Bihar/now Jharkhand, India) and the last two songs were composed in Tiljala, Kolkata,India. The 5017th song was on establishing Anandanagar and 5018th song was on establishing AM Gurukula. Q3: What are the four specialties of a style of Samgiita? A: Samgiita is the combination of song,dance and instrumental music. Its four specialties are bha'va (idea), chanda(rhythm), sura(melody), and bha's'a (lyrics) Q4: List the broad categories and examples in which PS songs fall under? A: PS represents a wide variety. There songs for different seasons, different occasions &amp; festivals, different ragas, different styles, from different countries, conveying different ideations etc. More specifically, there are songs for: New Year(130,127); Birthday(135); Ananda Purnima(12,135,403); Shravanii Purnima(4954); Diipavali(63,1637); Spring Songs(103,1682); Summer Songs(109); Drought Songs(119); Rainy Season(116); Winter(97); Baby Naming(59); Funeral(60); Marriage(58); Tree Planting Ceremony(136); Anandanagar-related (5017);Gurukula(5018); PROUT(1340,1341,4795); Mahaprayan(2085,3857); Full Moon(903); Dream Songs(80); VSS Song(50,74); Songs for Wts(342);For One human Society (880); Farewell Song(1698,2085,3857);Krsna Gitii(4281,4425); Shiva Gitii(1418,1565,2505,4279);Songs in different languages like Hindi(4070,4195,4512), Urdu(25,4072,4146,4335) etc;Autumn(123); AMURT (3714,1222,3713,1335); Surrender(2777,2300,1859); Folk Songs(485,911);Neohumanism Songs(647,3821); Jhumur(3910), Ghazals (25,1187,212);Tandava(3282,4983,4722); Mystic songs (1440,1423,1556,347,372,266,1341,1413,1702,1789,1557,1859,3906); Laying the foundation stone(137) ;SSAC(1330,1331,1767,1815) ; PMSA/PWSA(1127); Desert songs(1345);Baul(911,2085);Meditation (162,4673); Lotus(3191); Sunflower(2935); Israeli(4582),Persian(4644), Chinese(14, 4621);Icelandic(1932), Swedish(4864);Songs on ecological balance (2192),Iberian (663), Balkan (4697);Children Songs( 29,303,361,1784,4682)Polish(2608); Brothers day (4473), Thumri (3481,1419); Rowing Boat song Bha'tiya'li (919) ;Blues/Sad song (2023) Song in English(5009) , Qawalii(223), Kiirtan(138-150),Scandinavian (960) etc Q5: What ragas &amp; melodic structures have the PS songs been composed in? A: Ragas are the principal modes of Indian classical music. They are six in number. Raginiis are 36 in number and secondary to the principal modes. Each ra'ga or ra'gin'ii is a rhythmic or melodic pattern used as a basis of improvisation. PS has been composed in innumerable ragas and raginiis. Even some of the ragas in which PS has been composed have yet to be named. Some examples are: Behag(1022); Desh (1269); Bhaeravii(4673); Mishra Chandrakaus (1717); Mishra kafi (2023); Jaunpuri (236); Mishra Shiv rainjani (3769); Yaman (1565); Mishra yaman (2929); jay jayanti (828); Malkaus (34); Chayanat (3881); Darbari Kanada (1039); Diipak (175) This raga was sung during Lord Shiva's time; Pure-Classical (1443,1002,828,82,187,203,748); Semi-Classical (4621, 3481,1419); Tappa (2302); Ghazal-Urdu (25);Hava-Ghazal (1187);Bengal Ghazal (212); Urdu Kawalii (2230- its original home was near Port of Aden; Bengal-Kawalii (25); Song from Buddhist era (7);Bhaga Kiirtan (181,276,1612,2546); Indian-Persian Classical (1443); Indo-Chinese(1078); Jhumur (1078,476); Baul (2085,911); Pada kiirtan (138-150),Thumri (3481,1419); etc. Q6: How does PS compare with Rabindra Sam'giita? A: While Rabindra Nath Tagore also composed many songs throughout his life, his work was like a poet or devotee reaching unto the infinite. On the other hand, Baba's contributions are of a different genius. It is like Lord giving words to the diverse feelings of the devotee. PS also has many similar tunes as used in RS but there is a unique blending of different styles never tried before. Q7: To whom has Ba'ba' Shrii Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar dedicated his book of Sam'giita (first published in 1987)? A: To the sacred memory of the late Ramnidhi Gupta (Nidhi Babu) and the late Ustad Alauddin Khan, two music maestros who brought about epoch making changes in the world of music. Q 8: Is there any example of any PS which can cure any physical or psychic disorder of any kind? A: There are different ragas for different times of the day and they have effect on human body and on animals too. The therapeutic benefits of PS are many. It is contented that PS can have beneficial effect in case of epilepsy, gout, hysteria,melancholia,grief, shock or any nervous problem. PS can vibrate nerve fibers and bring back vital energy. It can remove pain in the upper portion of the arm. It can remove seminal weakness (via 3282,4983,4722) and help in sound sleep. Even losing hair can be stopped. This is an area of empirical research. Q9: On which single day Baba composed maximum number of PS songs? A: On November 20,1984, Baba composed 15 songs (2101-2115) in his Lake Gardens residence in Kolkata. They were composed so effortlessly that it filled all around him with awe and admiration. Q 10. What is the secret of the lyrical beauty of PS? A: Bengali is one of those languages which predominantly uses komala-svara ( soft sounding letters).Lyrics sound sweet if letters belonging to komala-svara (ca and ta) are used properly with in the various lines. The sweetness is enhanced if kathor dhvani (hard sounds-major notes or tones) are scattered through the lines,followed immediately by komal-svara (soft sounds-minor notes or semi-tones). PS is the living testimony of application of this lyrical science. Q 11. What is the symbolic significance of PS being named so? A: Prabhata Samgiita were composed by Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar. So many may think that it is named so to indicate the author who composed PS. In fact, the real significance of PS is that they represent the new dawn (prabhata) in the world of samgiita. It is indeed a revolution in the world of music. It heralds the dawn of a new era of music and culture. PS carries both a wide variety and depth of emotion that is unparalleled . It fills the vacuum caused by the dark night of psuedo-culture. It takes us from the world of staticity and mere sensory pleasure unto the celestial realm,to the realm of devotion-the abode of true inner peace and awakening. Q 12: What bha'vas are expressed in PS? A: PS is a store house of wide variety of bha'vas (ideations) ranging from viraha (pain of separation) to the madhur bha'va -joy of unison with the Supreme beloved. There are songs carrying the feelings of optimism(2102,1574,1754,1695,1393); universalism(880) ; service spirit (3714); personification of love(1918); different types of devotion(1041); sakha-bha'va (607) ; social awareness (4795); love for flora and fauna(647,3821); varnaghyada'na(1403); anudhya'na(162); abhiman (1762,1831,2005); dhya'na (1058,1956) ,jyotirdhyana (1301), downfall of communism (4705); savikalpa samadhi (383); marching song (1330);mysticism (925,1440); prama-siddhi (3879), viraha (1753,1627,1585,1545,1068,1033).This area needs more research. Q13.At which places did Baba compose PS? A: Almost all PS were composed in India. Most of them were composed in MG Quarters in Kolkata and Anandanagar. Other places where he composed included Deogarh, Ranchi, Tatanagar, Daltonganj, Kanpur, Agra, Bilaspur, Gadaipur(Delhi);Allahabad, Gwalior,Betia, Digha, Bhagalpur, Burdwan, Dhanbad, Ananda Shiila', Mathura, Jammu, Anandapur Sahib, Fatehpur Sikri, Gorakhpur, Jaipur, Kota, Banda,Varanasi, Bishnupur…Some were composed while traveling on the road. Some were even composed in the nursing home in Kolkata. Q14 How is PS spelled in Roman Samskrta? A: Prabha'ta Sam'giita Q15. How many primary raga's and raginiis are there? A: 6 ragas and 36 raginiis Q16. Has any scholar done a literary appraisal of PS? A: Many scholars have attempted. Among them are late Professor Ramaranjan Mukherji ,formerly Vice-Chancellor of Burdwan University and Rabindra Bharati University, and Chancellor of Tirupati Sanskrit University &amp; Dr. Subhas Sarkar,formerly Head of the Department and Shakespeare Professsor of English at Rabindra Bharati University,Kolkata. In the words of late Prof.Ramaranjan Mukherji: “ A poet does not suddenly appear in the field of literary art, nor does a literary thought emerge all of a sudden. There is continuity in the chain of ideas, and there is a tradition which is inherited by all literary artists. Indian seers first started carving out their poetical paintings in the morning of humankind, and the thoughts projected by them are contained in the miniature word -paintings contained in the Samhita's. The craving of eternal humanity for Truth, Beauty and Bliss- our unending aspiration to have a state of Bliss,associated with the Infinite- starts its journey from the period of Samhitas and winds its course through the Upanishads and Epics, the specimens of literary artists and systems of philosophy. This eternal longing ultimately appears in the writings of literary artists and philosophers of contemporary period, like Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, Tagore and Sri Aurobindo, and finally in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, who has tried to rescue the Supra-sensuous from the morass in which it has found itself sunk due to the onslaught of the sensuous and the physical. The lyrics of Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar represent the final results of the confrontation between the sensuous and the Super-sensuous, the physical and the Supra-physical, the material and the spiritual-the confrontation in which the Supra-sensuous and the spiritual have always come out victorious.” In the words of Prof. Subhas Sarkar : “The devotional and esoteric poetry of India,which has a great tradition that has been nurtured by the contributions of the South Indian Alwar poets, Vaesnava saint-poets,Meerabai, Tulsidas, Kabir and Tagore, finds a significant and great exponent in modern times in P.R.Sarkar.His Prabhat Samgiita is a testimony to the richness of that tradition,which continues unabated.Sarkar's importance ,however, lies in his originality of approach and enrichment of that tradition by imparting to it a Neohumanistic bias which adapts devotional poetry to the idea of a human commitment and “mission” for the welfare of all beings. The application of his neohumanistic ideas and Proutist beliefs, making spirituality an essential part of his implementation of ideas in life, has given a new dimension to his devotional and esoteric poetry. If he was a mystic poet in his quest for meaning in life and in his sincere endeavour to correlate the human with the divine, his utmost sincerity even in his contemplative poetry brings in a neo-vedantic zeal which is very close to that of the great humanist thinker and religious philosopher Swami Vivekananda. Even Sri Aurobindo's zeal for a spiritual evolution of humanity and his concept of involution receive a new interpretation in P.R.Sarkar's novel idea of Neohumanism. This places the well-being and continuous progress of all human beings at the centre, while inalienably linking us up with the whole of creation by investing in us the responsibility for the universal well-being of all living beings and even the inanimate,encompassing the entirety of Nature itself. This at once makes Shri P.R.Sarkar a significant poet of Nature and humanity, and a mystic poet who brings spirituality down to earth, to the everyday life of all existence. Here esoteric poetry comes to be integrated into life itself.” Q17. What is the inner import of Sam'giita? A: The totality of song,instrumental play and dance (giita-va'dya-nrtya) is called Sam'giita (music). Language(lyrics), bha'va (idea), rhythm, and melody are the indispensable parts of a song. In instrumental music, rhythm is predominant, melody is subordinate , and language is absolutely nil. Dance is customarily divided in to two categories: gestural (use of mudra') and rhythmic. The gestures give expression to inner sentiment, and the rhythm gives it dynamism. If dance is only gestural devoid of rhythm, it is called pantomime,not dance. And dance devoid of gestures is nothing but another form of physical exercise- it is not art. In acting there is both language and gesture and in recitation, there is only language. Thus in acting there is greater scope for the expression of refined aesthetics taste than in recitation. When the song is composed only to express the laughter and tears of ordinary life,there is hardly any difficulty in conveying this to the ears and hearts of the people: the song discharges its responsibility well enough through the medium of ordinary language and melody. But where the feelings and sensibilities are deep and subtle-where one has to create vibrations in the molecules and atoms of the body,in the chords of the heart -there the music has to follow an extra-ordinaary path: hence to those who are incapable of ingesting the subtle feelings of the science of music, the ala'pa or introductory portion of the classical piece,will be nothing but pra'la'pa or delirious raving. PS falls in that special category where scores of subtle and deep sentiments of the human heart are expressed in colourful melodies and rhythms. Humans are always yearning for the unknown. PS fills that need and appeals to the intuitional faculty of the human mind. The ideal of the artist is to be established in transcendentality beyond the bounds of the sensory world. The cultivation of fine aarts is but a mockery on the path of those who have not developed spiritual sentiment or accepted the spiritual ideal as the goal of life. Thus, PS goads us to the inner core of art &amp; aesthetics- a tactual experience of transcendental world. Q 18:What forums were created by Shrii P.R.Sarkar for the popularization of PS? A: RAWA (ERAWS); Spandanik (PU); Chandosik (VSS); Nandosik (ASD); Surasaptak (SDM) Q19. What is the original home of Qawalii? A: the original home the Qawalii was near the port of Aden. The Urdu style of Qawalii later was popular in Pakistan and the Bengal later also adopted it. PS Songs #25, 223 give us a taste of that tradition. Q20. Who is “Aja'na Pathik” referred in PS? A: Aja'na Pathik means “Unknown Traveller”.It is the personification of the Transcendental Entity, the Supreme Consciousness. Supreme Entity is not like a judge of a court but the divine father who loves His creation and stays eternally with Its creation . He is none else but the Taraka brahma – the tat'astha consciousness that links the expressed and the unexpressed. Unknown Traveller- Aja'na Pathik is none else but Ba'ba' of this creation who likes to play hide and seek with His creation. Q 21. What are the five compulsory songs of PS? A: The compulsory songs are #154,158,159,162 and 163. These compulsory songs were chosen in the initial days of PS because of their spiritual significance and could be sung before any spiritual collective function. Of course, one is not restricted to sing any of the PS songs appropriate to a particular occasion. Now of course, one can prepare one's own repertoire from among a large selection to fit the occasion where the songs are being sung. Q22: Which song(s) conveys the spiritual anguish of a spiritual aspirant in PS? A: #1627- kato kache chile dure chole gele....##2023 eto dukha diye a'ma're......there are many more, ofcourse. Q23. How many songs did Baba compose in Deogarh when he first started? A: Twenty Five Songs #1-25. (14th Sept. 1982 - 28th Sept.,1982) Q:24.What was the first song composed in Anandanagar and when? A: Song # 26 on October 4th,1982 bandhu gao gao madhugiiti,tandra' bhenge diyo..Later, many songs were composed there. Q:25 Which was the first song composed in Madhu Ma'lainca (LakeGardens,Kolkata)and when? A: On 19th Oct. 1982 Song # 38 Se je eseche mor hrdaye guinjariya'..later many more were composed there. Q26: Which was the first song first composed in Madhu korak (Tiljala) in Kolkata and when? A: November 12,1982 Song #104 Nrtyaer ta'le ta'le nrtya'ter chande...Later many songs were composed there. Q27:Is PS a subset of Nandan-vijinana (aesthetic science) or Mohan-Vijanana (Supra-aesthetic science)? A: In my humble opinion, Prabhata Samgiita falls on the silver lining between nandan-vijinana and mohan vijanana. It definitely begins as nandan-vijinana but it also transports the singer to the celestial realm of mohan-vijinana. The beginning of the process of losing oneself to the very source of joy,is known as Mohan-vijinana or the science of supra-aesthetics. And the entity to whom we lose ourselves is Mohana,or the embodiment of enchantment. ParamaPurusa (Supreme Consciousness) is Mohana as He enchants one and all. Thus, PS brings us to the doorsteps of Mohana-Vijanana. In PS, there are also some kiirtan tunes which fall in the category of Mohan-Vijinana. Since sam'giita includes dance,song and instrumental music, kiirtan as samgiita falls with in the category of mohana-vijanana. It can ensconce the spiritual aspirant in the infinite rhythm and charm of Parama Purusha. PS should be sung before kiirtan. Q 28: What is sura-saptaka ? A: The seven musical notes sa',re,ga',ma',pa',dha',ni constitutes sura-saptaka or the Indian musical notes, and the western musical octave comprises the eight notes do,re,mi,fa',sol,la',si, comes twice and thus the combination of eight produces the octave.The sura-saptaka and occidental musical octave have no basic difference. Sura-saptaka was invented by Lord Sadashiva and taught to Maharsi Bharata.Sura-saptaka is part of svara sha'stra or sarvodaya or shabda-sha'stra of Shiva. Q 29: What is difference between giita (song) and sam'giita and gandharva vidya? A: What is sung meticulously, emitting sound in a pleasing sequence in unison with melody, rhythm and beat is giita (song). And if it gets associated with dance and instrumental music, it becomes sam'giita. (sam+gae+kta). Sam'giita is nothing but gandharva-vidya'.(science of music).At the first stage it is to be learnt, then knowing is required, which calls for the subjectivization of external objectivity. Later it must be made part and parcel of one's nature. And when it becomes such,it is worthy to be called gandharva-vidya. Q30. Why is the virtuoso-artist called sam'giitajina and not sam'giita shilpii? A: In Samskrta,the word shilpana means an activity done with one's hands that requires artistic skill (in a word, handicraft).But the song sung by a singer is in no way a work done by hand. So the word sam'giita shilpii is a misnomer. However, those who play musical instrument have a scope to display the dexterity of their hands and therefore, can be called sam'giita shilpii. Q31. What is a ghara'n'a'? A: Ghara'n'a' is a particular style of rendition. The rule, method or style of singing varies as per the master of compositions. It gives rise to different ghara'n'a's. Noted families of musicians also create their own ghara'n'a's. In various countries or places, songs are sung differently at particular stages of time in diverse raga's and ragin'iis. PS may also be called a unique ghara'n'a' of devotional music. Q 32. What are the different stages of expression of sound? A: According to the science of acoustics, the origin or the seed of a word remains in latent form in para'shakti [the primordial desire for expression]. The dormant condition of a word is called para'. It goes through other stages : pashyanti..madhyama'..dyotma'na'..vaekharii..shrutigocara'. Shrutigocara' is the stage when the idea borne by the uvula comes out of the parted lips. When human beings attain proficiency in controlling vaekharii power by dint of spiritual sa'dhana (meditation) ,it is called vaekharii siddhi. Q33. How can sweetness be added to a quivering voice while singing PS? A: Adding sweetness to a quivering voice warrants concentration of mind in the ku'rma na'd'ii [energy channels related to vocal cord] which is close to the centre of vaekharii power. Q34. What was the traditional remedy for sore-throat for singers in the Rgvedic and Yajurvedic age? A: Human beings have been singing since pre-historic times. In Rkvedic period, songs were primarily in long and elongated voices. In the yajurvedic period, there were songs in short,long and elongated forms. In the atharveda period also, there were songs in short and long voices-although we cannot say that elongated forms was totally absent. Singing a song requires the use of uvula. As it came under strain during singing, the uvula and other parts of throat contracted diseases and became painful. In the remote past, people tied gossamer or pashm (gossamer or fleece or hair of all kinds) to the end of a slender stick dipped it into warm honey and anointed the uvula and other affected parts of the throat. Some people used warm or fresh ghee in the same way. In the Yajurvedic age, if a singer , male or female, suffered from sore-throat, they used to fasten cotton to a slender stick or coconut stick, soak it in warm ghee or black pepper powder and use it to rub the affected parts of the throat (as throat paint). Q35. Which is the oldest stringed musical instrument? A: It was called Ekta'ra'- one stringed musical instrument. It was invented during pre-historic times to bring resonance to the sound of the string. Shiva improved upon this ekta'ra' and made the viin' or viin'a'.This viin'a' was the first musical instrument so devised as to maintain unison with surasaptaka or musical octave. The lower portion of stringed instruments, which at one time used to be made from hard dry ripe gourd shells, is known as kolambaka in samskrta. This shell especially helps to deepen the sound, thereby the sound becomes harmonious. Q36. Where did Sitar, Tabla' &amp; Violin originate? A: Although the viin' originated in India and has been there since the time of Shiva, its descendent violin came from Italia. Tabla' is the metamorphosed form of mrdanga and has originated in India. Sita'r ,however, has come from Persia. The word 'sitar' means a combination of three strings. Q37. Where did the gazal originate? A: Gazal originated in Persia and Ha'va' gazal came from Turkey. In PS, there are ghazals and hava'-gazals too. Q38. Why is Shiva' also called Konesh? A: The regions or points on the lower part of a stringed instrument and its upper part between which the strings remain attached are called kon'a or kon'avindu. As Shiva' could tune the stringed instruments very well, he was called Kon'esh. It is noteworthy that as the first stringed instrument of this world viin' was invented by Shiva, the other name of viin' or viin'a' (lyre) is shivakona'. Q39. What can the fine tuning of stringed musical instruments teach us? A: It is said “In a loose string, the melody remains mute; If pulled, the delicate string is torn apart.” Human life is somewhat like that also. If one practices too much austerities, tender human sensitivities snap and break into smithereens...the soft ,delicate parts of the mind get charred and petrified. On the other hand, if life is made akin to a loose string, the nobler yearnings of life degenerates into the life of an animal characterized only by bathing,eating and sleeping. Hence one must never allow the string of life to be too loose. But also the string of life should not be left to snap due to excessive strain. The ideal course is the middle path which Buddha called majjhima' ma'gga. The ideal course of life is neither left oriented nor right oriented. The middle path is the divinely exquisite, super-human existence. Q40. Ca'rushiila' was the name given to which type of women in Gupta period of Indian history? A: Women who were adept in fine arts were known as ca'rushiila' in the society during Gupta period of Indian history. Q 41. Have new ragas and raginiis been created in PS? A: On April 29,1984 , Shrii P.R. Sarkar commented that he has already created a few new ragas and ra'giniis in PS and have not yet named them. Since then, he composed so many more songs and there is all the possibility that there is a storehouse of new ra'gas and ra'gin'iis among his compositions. Q 42. Is there frequent use of extra-long (pluta) a and a' vowels in PS? A: According to Shrii P.R.Sarkar, “there is a definite need for the use of the extra -long a and a' vowels- at least in the case of sam'giita. The inadequacy of letters (to express mental feelings) in general conversation is much more prominent in the case of music. Symbols similar to lupta a can be used with various other vowels [to represent long or extra-long vowels]; if used with music, both the teachers and the students of music will be immensely benefited.” Ba'ba' introduced the use of n extra-long ' sound to be sung in the kheyal style at the end of the first line of each antara' (stanza) in PS. Q 43. What is dhrupadii style of music? A: That which is mastered by continuous arduous practice is called dhrupada. Dhrupada music is a certain type of method or style where the music is fixed in a certain scale. This method or style may differ from place to place. From each distinct style emerges a different ghara'n'a'. When the rendering styles become rigidly confined to only certain specific notes corresponding to a particular raga and ra'ginii, they may become monotonous and die out. The attempt to break this monotony found its way into kheya'l where the vocalist is given some freedom while maintaining the correct scales. The languages which follow strict rules of grammar are also called dhrupadii languages. Dhrupadii is a sort of classical language or music. Q 44 How does ba'nshii (flute) derive its name? A: A bamboo is called bansha in samskrta. It was observed that hollow bamboos allow the wind to pass through it and can create different type of sounds. So from these hollow bamboos (bansha) primary musical instruments were created and these flutes came to be called banshii. The different sounds created when the flow of air is divided and obstructed came to be called flute sounds. So this bamboo flute was the first musical instrument created by nature. Afterword, by regulating the passage of air through the bamboo in musical rhythm and time, the musical scale was brought forth. Q45. Which song of PS has a melodic structure from Hawa-Ghazal? A: Song # 1187 Toma'rii Priiti te gar'a',toma'ri giiti te bhara'... Q46. Who was Mahars'i Bharata?What is his historical contribution to the music world? A: Mahars'i Bharata was born during the time of Sadashiva. Shiva taught him music and directed that he should teach it to anyone who has ardent interest in learning irrespective of any discrimination due to caste, creed or worldly status. Q47. From whom did the first humans learn to sing? A: Humans learned to sing from sounds of birds or animals. Shiva observed that the sounds produced by birds and animals maintain a harmonious adjustment with the undulations of the sound waves of the universe. Based on the sounds of the seven creatures, Shiva evolved the seven musical notes. Q 48. How can we recover the lost charming notes and melodies? A; According to P.R. Sarkar, there is no reason of disillusionment. “If people only develop their vigour, discipline, simplicity, and make intense effort, then success will come automatically. The lost treasure of the past will be fully restored to human society.” Gandharva microvita can aid us too. Q49. What was Baba's system of giving these songs of PS? A: Usually, when Ba'ba' was ready to give a song , he will ask his PA for the ga'n party ( a group of three persons designated to take dictation of the song) to be present outside his door. There were ofcourse exceptions when the words were taken only by His Personal assistant esp. when he was in the nursing home or when he was traveling. He would usually first hum and sing the melody and then give the lyrics. The words were immediately noted down and he will then ask the song-party (consisting of one, two or three persons) to sing the melody to him and once they were able to capture the tune and words properly, they were asked to practice it and immediately record the melody for posterity. Later when he would go for the evening or morning walk, song party was expected to sing the new songs to him so that he could correct any mistakes , if any. Sometimes, he would spend a long time explaining about the lyrics, raga, melody or the information connected with the song. Q50. What is the url of prabhata sam'giita website and what information is contained therein? A: The website has the lyrics of all 5018 songs and many of the recorded songs can be heard. Q51. What is the role of gandharva microvita in PS? A: Gandharva microvita can aid in reclaiming many lost melodies and can impart us the joy of the subtle sentiments contained in the PS. Q52. How many songs were composed in Samskrta in PS? A: Eight #3653,4279,4281,2505,3951,2526,3246,4425 Q53. What songs of PS are in English? A: It is heard that Baba composed about 100 songs in English while he was a young boy of about 10 years. However, we have only three songs in English in PS. Songs # 5009,5008,68 Q54. Baba gave first initiation to a robber on Shravanii Purn'ima when was only 18 years old. Which song of PS reminds us of that historical event ? A: Song # 4954 Q55. Does PS also contain a collection of songs in Urdu/Hindi? A: About twenty songs. Song # 25, 4172, 4167, 4979, 4078, 4168, 4146, 4072, 4335, 4170, 4062, 4283, 4327, 4165, 4733, 4135, 4070, 4195, 4171, 4512. Q56.Why PS is sometimes called the songs of Mysticism? A: Mysticism is an unending endeavour to link finite with the infinite. In PS also, we find the similar attempt. All songs take us from the mundane to the transcendental. Q57. Is there a PS for every social function of AM ? Give examples. A: Yes. PS contains songs for almost every occasion and festivals. House Entry Ceremony (137); Baby naming Ceremony (59); Tree planting Ceremony (136); Wedding Song (58); Birthday (132); Funeral (60); Ananda Purn'ima (12,133,134,135,403); Diipa'valii (63,1637); New Years day (127,130,131); Vasantotsava – Spring Song (105,1682,3110); Flag Ceremony (50); Marching Song (74); Summer Song (110,119); Rainy Season (116); Autumn (123); End of Autumn (90,93);Winter (99); End of Winter (101), Mahaprayan (2085) Q58. Which is the song with scandinavian tune and oriental structure? A; Song # 960 Q59. Why is PS composed only in Bengali, Samskrta or Indic languages? A: It is obvious from Baba's works on grammer and philology that He was the Master of all languages and encouraged each local language and even dialects. Yet, He chose to give the songs in Bengali and a few other Indic languages. Bengali is a living language and contains more than 92% samskrta words. Baba wanted to popularize Samskrta words because it has the largest vocabulary for expressing subtle bha'va's (sentiments and thoughts). Respecting the laws of musical jurisprudence, PS is given mostly in one language but it has synthesized many different traditions, styles, ragas, and raginiis. In future, it will become easier to do research on PS through the proficiency in a single language. Furthermore, as mentioned before, Bengali is one of those languages which predominantly uses komala-svara (soft sounding letters).This specialty adds to the lyrical beauty of songs when combined with kathor dhvani (hard sounds). Q60. Is there any example of any extinct raga which has been revived in PS? A: There are many as alluded by Baba Himself. One example is Song # 175 (Diipak Ra'ga) which was sung during Shiva's time 7000 years ago. Q61. It is said that Rev. Ba'ba' had disclosed that he had composed many songs during his school days. Why did he wait so long before giving PS? A: The timing of every action of Ba'ba' itself is a mystery and yet a work of art. He was the Master of utilizing his time and that is the reason He was able to accomplish so much during his short stay on this planet earth. PS can be considered a musical exposition of all his philosophy. So after giving most essential elements of His philosophy- Spiritual, Social etc, he began the task of expressing it in poetic form for those who can not read or write but could listen the songs and get the same benefit of all His thoughts. Q62. What is the distinction between oriental and occidental dances? A: The primary difference is that oriental dance uses more of mudra and occidental dances rely more on rhythm. Q63. Have any famous singers sung PS so far? A: Yes. Many leading Bengali &amp; other singers have tried and they have all expressed their honour to be able to sing the songs composed by musical &amp; spiritual genius of our times, Shri P.R.Sarkar. Among them are Ram Kumar Chattopadhay, Anup Jalota, Jayashri Gupta, Madhuri Chattopadhay, Kavita K., S. Goswami, Kanchana Bandopaddhaya and many many others. Q 64. Is there a song of PS which can be considered as the best of the compositions of Shri P.R. Sarkar? A: I have many favorites and probably you and everyone else who loves PS have their own selection of their favorites. Depending on the mood, the state of mind and phase of one's life, one is attracted to different songs. Also according to the temperament of the person, one is attracted to different songs. Herein, lies the beauty of mass appeal of PS. It can cater to the spiritual needs of all irrespective of their state of spiritual development. Incidentally, one of my favourites is Classical Song # 33 Tomar na'me, toma'r ga'ne hayechi a'panha'ra..In your name, in your song- I lose myself. I used to hear Ac.Tadbhavanandaji sing this song on roof top in Tiljala, Kolkata in the early morning and it was an enchanting experience. I also like some songs composed by Ba'ba' in Bheravi ra'ga. In a nutshell, PS is the revolution in the world of spiritual music and will continue to inspire humans for all generations to come due to its diversity and transcendental nature. Q65. Is there any song that demonstrates the lyrical beauty of PS? A: I personally loved song # 3476 when I first listed to it where the lyrics are musical in their cadences and structure. The symbolism used in the last stanza is beautiful indeed. There are however, scores of even better examples. One of the specialty of PS lyrics is also that it is filled with charming rhythmic notes. Dr. Subhas Sarkar has elaborately described the lyrical beauty in PS through examples from Song # 6, 48 ,84, 174, 292, 299, 335, 391, 438, 448, 513, 519, 539, 608, 646, 663, 755, 758, 761, 772, 990, 1002, 1017, 1155, 1162, 1168, 1197, 1245, 1251, 1421, 1591, 1877, 2061, 2612, 3249, 3665, 4289, 4559. Musicality heightens and intensifies the emotions articulated in poetry. In PS, we find an eloquent expression of this. Q 66. What is a Cho dance? A: Cho is a war folk dance performed in Rahr (Bengal). It was performed after battle during times of rest in the military camp. It contains lots of mudra's. The dancer only dances and does not sing. Another person sings and narrates in song what is taking place. The faces are hidden in masks and elaborate costumes are used to decorate the dancers. This dance was performed in front of Ba'ba' at Anandanagar DMC's esp on the RAWA Cultural nights. Q67. What is lalita carana, ca'rukala or lalitakala ? A: All these terms signify the cultivation of fine arts. Human beings express their feelings in different ways. The feeling human beings express in the physical realm is called worldly action. When expression is brought to the psychic realm, it is called lalita carana [cultivation of fine arts]. Lalita carana is also called simply “the fine arts” or “subtler arts”.In ancient literature,the word ca'rukala' [ca'ru means “charming” and kala' means”art”. These days, lalita-kala' is more often used in the same sense. Lalita represents arousing of happiness or bliss. The dance invented by Pa'rvati, Shiva's spouse is called Lalita-Ma'rmika. Lalita helps people in their spiritual progress and psychic expansion. Kiirtan can be called Lalita-dance. In PS , there are also many kiirtan tunes. Q68. Why is singing of PS made compulsory in all AM functions esp. Paincajanya, Dharmacakras, and social functions of Ananda Marga by Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiiji? A: It is said ,“Dhyan mulam guru murti, puja mulam, guru padam; Mantra mulam guru vakyam, moks'a mulam,guru krpa”.Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiiji has blessed us with PS through the medium of innumerable melodies and songs. The singing of PS gently transports our mind into a spiritual ideation and brings us to the door step of Supreme Consciousness (Parama Purus'a). So, PS, Kiirtan and Spiritual Sadhana are usually done in combination for maximum spiritual benefit. Q69. Is it necessary to learn Bengali (or Samskrta) in order to enjoy or to get the benefits of PS? A:Not necessarily. Language (lyrics) is only one aspect of the four essential aspects of Samgiita -bha'va, chanda, sura being the others. Understanding the meaning of the words used in PS definitely adds to the enjoyment of PS. The therapeutic benefits of PS can be derived both by singing and listening PS. Q70. What is Prabhat Samgiita Academy and where are they located? A: Currently, all songs have been originally recorded in Kolkata. Ac. Priyashivananda Avt. has made a big contribution in this work along with Ac.Tattvavedananda and Ac. Nityasatyanandaji There are few Prabhata Sam'giita Academies in the world today. Once we have a sufficient number of accomplished teachers in PS, Ananda Marga Gurukula will establish such academies on every continent. Prashiksana Matha in Sweden has already made a beginning in this sacred work. We invite all lovers of PS to join hands to further the cause of PS and bring this great gift of beloved Ba'ba' to the entire humanity. March 29, 2011 post
78 Yoga in Lampang, N.Thailand Ms. Nuntaka in Lampang has been instrumental in popularizing Yoga in Northern Thailand for over ten years now. She is currently also teaching a course on "Yoga for the Brain" at Rajabhat University and hundreds of young students have benefited from this practical course that helps students to control their bodies, stimulate their brain, calm their nerves, increase concentration, and develop their minds. Recently, Dr. Dada Shambhushivananda visited the university for the third time and spoke on the ways to develop intuition, creativity through yoga and meditation. Nuntakaa has also introduced Yoga to Assumption School, Chiang mai University, Momfort College and several other institutions in N. Thailand. March 29, 2011 post
81 Yoga Therapy and Naturopathy Center On the bank of the Ganges in a pristine environment, Seva Dharma Mission in Varanasi has established a new naturopathy and yoga therapy center. The five acre plot is nicely laid out with healing flora and is surrounded by vegetable &amp; dairy farms where fresh milk and vegetables is abundantly available. At this Ananda Dha'ra', there is also possibility to establish a branch of monastic seminary and an academy where samskrta and music classes will also be given. Villagers are happy to use the Sadhu Ghat for bathing and meditations. March 29, 2011 post
83 Stockholm Homeopathic Institute Anthony Carlyle began the introductory course on Classical Homeopathy at Gotgatan 90, Stockholm in September, 2010.The first batch of students include the trainees from Prashiksasna Matha of Ydrefors, Sweden. For further information, please contact Krsnadeva at +46-70-2358808. september 29, 2010 post
85 Singapore Yoga Academy gets MOE Approval Ananda Marga Gurukula Singapore Yoga Academy has received the long-awaited approval from the Ministry of Education. The academy offers certificate and diploma courses in yoga science and life style. <a title="" href=""></a> has more information on the institution. august 29, 2010 post
88 Homeopathy and Yoga Therapy Institute in Bali Under the auspices of WISMA PERUBATAN HOMEOPATH INSTITUTE SINGAPORE, AMGK Homoeopathy Institute (Alternative Medicine) was opened recently in Bali at our Tejakula Centre. Ac. Mitrabuddhyananda Avadhuta also conducted the Yoga Therapy Classes at the Bali Centre. The Diploma Course started in August,2010. June 29, 2011 post
91 5th Annual Yoga Educators Conference Concludes with Grace The fifth annual International Yoga Educators Conference was held in Bali from June 29th to July 3rd, 2011 and attended by 95 yoga enthusiasts. For more details of the program please visit: <a title="" href=""></a> . This year's annual conference was held in the beautiful Landih Ashram in Bali. Landih Ashram is located on the mountain of Kintamani on the magical island of Bali and is known for its fresh air and natural surroundings. Some of the topics that were addressed at the conference were: Yoga Therapy; Yoga Sa'dhana (Intuitional Science); Yoga Life Style; Yoga Asanas-Mudras-bandhas; Yoga for Special Groups (Children, Pregnant Women, Senior Citizens, etc); Insights into Ananda Sutram and a lot more.. Speakers included Dr. Marta Antunes, Mrs. Kaomudii Yip, Dada Shankarsanananda and Dada Dharmavedananda. For more information about future events, please write to: <a href=""></a> &nbsp; July 29, 2011 post
94 Yoga Academy in Bernaul, Siberia, Russsia A yoga training program is being established in the Yoga Academy in E.Russia. Acharya Sudhakar Brahmacarii and Didi Sarvajina reports that many yoga enthusiasts are interested in enrolling in the courses and it will serve many cities due to its flexible approach of short-term intensive modules. The program will be run under the Faculty of Yoga and Intuitional Science of Ananda Marga Gurukula. Three of the students from the Academy are already now in Sweden Prashiksana Matha to undergo further advanced training to become full-time meditation teachers. May 29, 2011 post
99 Yoga Nasapan on video <div><a title="" href=""></a> Dada rasabuddhanandaji guides the demonstration of yoga nasapan in taipei,taiwan.</div> september 29, 2011 post
102 Detox retreats in Taiwan Ananda Marga Fasting Retreat is a residential detox retreat in rural Taiwan where you can relax and rejuvenate with yoga, meditation, fresh juice and delicious vegetarian food. <a title="" href=""></a> <a title="" href=""></a> February 25, 2010 post
105 Yoga Training for Medical Professionals <div>Dr. Sauli Shantatman Siekkinen in Finland is preparing to offer a special course on "Yoga Science for the medical professionals" (including nurses,osteopaths,physio therapists etc). A basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology is a compulsory requirement to enroll in this course. Dr. Siekkinen is also hoping to establish a cooperative hospital of alternative medicine in order to complement the already established medical services in his country. The Natural Hospital Fountain of Life : Luontaissairaala Elamanlahde has already been registered on 21st Oct.2009.There are 15 members so far including doctor, nurse, nutrition therapist,zone therapist etc.It is a multi-therapy holistic health care center with a special focus on yogic medicine. The first successful detox week was held between Oct 23-31st,2009 with ten patients. Interested persons may contact Dr. Siekkinen at Sauli Siekkinen M.D. Mannerheimintie 29 D 63 00250 Helsinki Finland <a href=""></a></div> november 29, 2009 post
106 Author: Ac.Shambhushivananda Avadhuta The answers given here are by necessity short. They scratch the surface of a profound and complex issue. The readers are encouraged to refer to works of Shrii Shrii Anandamurtijii for elaboration of different concepts. Q 1: What Is? A 1: This question defines the domain of ontology. The fundamental stuff of being, the essence of the universe, consists of consciousness called Brahma- which is the composite of Cognitive Faculty and Operative principle, rather than matter, energy or ideas. Complex organizations, such as atoms, molecules, space and time, living beings, minds and societies emerge out of Supreme Consciousness through the process of transmutations and metamorphosis. Microvita – the emanations from Cosmic Entity- are instrumental in maintaining both equilibrium and equipoise in the universal strata- in the physical, physico-psychic, psychic and psycho-spiritual realms. Q 2: Why is there something rather than nothing? A 2: The state of apparent cosmic void- nothingness is only a relative state. There is consciousness everywhere. Only when the Prakrti is dormant, the consciousness appears without any manifestation and is called Non-Attributional Consciousness. That state is sometimes referred to as “shunya”-nothingness. But actually, the seeds or potentiality of expression lie embodied within this Nirgun'a Brahma. Hence, to call it `shunya´ or `nothingness´ is a misnomer. Something cannot come out of nothing. So if this universe exists, it must have an origin or source. The source of everything is the Nirgun'a Brahma. Q 3: Why is the world the way it is? A 3: The `evolution´ takes place through physical clashes, psychic clashes and longing or the Attraction of the Great (Supreme Consciousness). The world is in constant transition towards higher and higher levels of self-organization in order to free itself from the shackles of Prakrti. The cycle of creation begins from the Subtlest Entity and reaches the climax at the crudest manifestation and then travels on towards returning to the source. Nirgun'a Brahma is the starting point and the terminus of all movements in the world. All other movements are mere transitory states. Q 4: Where does it all come from? A 4: Human mind cannot ordinarily comprehend the source of its existence since it is itself an effect and the knowledge of primal cause eludes it. To know the primal cause of creation, one will have to step behind. Mukta Purus'a or an emancipated being is exactly that level of being who is unaffected by the influence of Prakrti and can, therefore, reveal the motivation of creations and dissolutions. Nirgun'a Brahma is non-attributional and so it cannot be the direct cause of manifested world. It is Sagun'a Brahma- the Attributional stance of Supreme Consciousness which allows the dexterous Prakrti to crate a variegated world through the infinite power of its sentient, mutative and static principles. In this process, the cosmic mind, microvita, elementary particles, atoms, molecules, living cells, multi-cellular organisms, animals, people and society come into being. The transmutations and metamorphosis continues until each entity returns to the primordial state of Nirgun'a Brahma. Q 5: Where do we come from? A 5: Homo-sapiens (human beings) are a step in the evolution of species and evolved out of animals that had the capacity to learn associations from the environment, by additionally developing the capacity to think or display powers of the mind. Human thought is rooted in the emergence of symbolic language. However, human being is also repository of clearly reflected consciousness and that is what makes him or her a divine being, capable of performing intuitional practice and ultimately to unite with highest subtlest consciousness- Nirgun'a Brahma. Q 6: Who are we? A 6: Humans are considered to be the most advanced creatures on this planet and occupy a high position in the hierarchy of meta-systems. Our capacity for thought distinguishes us from the animals or other creatures by giving us uniquely human characteristics, such as self-consciousness, tool-making, imagination, capacity of visualization, play, sense of humour and aesthetic feelings. We are also capable of performing higher intuitional practices and thereby control emotions and cultivate universal love. On the other hand, we are also capable of degrading our mind to utmost crudity and destroy the sacred opportunity to attain moks'a (self-realization or liberation from the bondage of Prakrti). We have yet to demonstrate that we can build a peaceful society where everyone can enjoy the maximum amenities and equal opportunities for physical, mental and spiritual growth. Q 7: Where are we going to? A 7: We are in a state of constant transition towards increasing complexity, adaptivity and use of intelligence. As we learn to use the hidden powers of body, mind and spirit – we are being propelled to find the equilibrium and equipoise in every sphere of life. What has so far been done by the cosmic mind will gradually be taken over by the unit minds, in greater or lesser degrees, in gradual steps. Despite developments in science, technology and the arts- human beings will always have to resort to the intuitional practices in order to unite with the Highest Consciousness in the spiritual stratum. So, we may be headed to a spiritually inspired, enlightened, wisdom-based society, without it, we may head to our destruction or even extinction. Q 8: What is the purpose of it all? A 8: Evolutionary process is characterized by increasing complexity, adaptivity and intelligence. However, that is only an external goal. The inner spirit of evolutionary process is to manifest the hidden longing for unison with Highest Consciousness. All creatures strive for incessant flow of happiness. Our merger in Cosmic Consciousness is culmination of our thirst for limitless happiness. To be happy and make all others happy is the purpose of it all. One can achieve this through cultivating universal love and putting it into action for the welfare of all. Q 9: Is there a God? A 9 : To consider an Entity that is outside of the universe as God would mean putting limits on that Entity. God stands for Generator, Operator and Destructor – the entity which creates, maintains and sublimates. In that sense, the Supreme Consciousness alone represents the concept of God. It is known in religious cultures by different names. Fundamentally, God is one and it is all pervasive and therefore it resides even in our own `I´ feeling. To realize God, we do not need to look for sacred places outside but dive deep in the core of our own being. Q 10: What is good and what is evil? A 10: Anything that brings us in closest proximity to the Supreme Consciousness is fundamentally good and anything that takes us away from that cosmological hub is evil. In an unending cycle of birth and death, we are constantly moving but if our distance from the Cosmic Nucleus remains the same or increases, we are not progressing. Any action that helps to preserve our existence, to express our hidden potentialities and bring us in the closest proximity to the Nirgun'a Brahma may be considered `moral´ or good. Good and bad are otherwise relative in nature. No action is intrinsically or permanently good or bad. Q 11: What is knowledge? A 11: This question defines the domain of epistemology. In the old RK vedic language `ji?a´ or `vid´ meant “to know”. The verb `ji?a´ invented by the ancient Aryans was changed into “keno” in old Semitic language, in old Latin “keno”, in Bengali “jnya” and in modern English “know”. As the original spelling of the word is keno, we still spell the word with “k” in the beginning without actually pronouncing it. In the mechanical sphere, knowing or the functional side of knowledge occurs on perceiving special types of reflections and refractions, but in the psychic sphere, it occurs as a result of the subjectivization of objectivity or objectivities. In essence, knowing oneself is the real knowledge and all other sorts of knowledge are mere umbras and penumbras of knowledge. The goal of all knowledge is to help us to unite with Supreme subjectivity. The best way to connect with Supreme Subjectivity is to bear in mind that in all actions – big or small, significant or insignificant, done in wakeful state or in sleep, in dream or in hard reality – - the Supreme Consciousness is maintaining a constant or close vigil on me. Thereby the subjectivity as such does not come within our objectivated mind, but the ideation of the Supreme Subjectivity becomes objectivated. When this ideation becomes most conspicuous, most stable and permanent, we find ourselves established in the final stage of the faculty of knowledge. Q 12: What is Truth? A 12: Everything of this relative world is subject to change as per changes in time, space and person. Hence, this world is called relative truth. The `truth´ of a theory is merely its power to explain and produce predictions that are confirmed by observations. In the relative world, there cannot be any `absolute´ truth. However, the Supreme Cognitive Faculty of Supreme Consciousness always remains in its original stance and never undergoes any change. So it is called Absolute Truth. The changes which appear in the universe are caused due to the varying binding influence of Prakrti (Cosmic Operative Principle) over Purus'a (Cosmic Cognitive Faculty). That is why, Truth is always one and Its essence is always one. Q 13: What is Consciousness? A 13: `To be conscious´ means `to be aware´. While in deep sleep, coma or in death, we are not aware of our existence and therefore we are called un-conscious. However, in the dream or awake stage, there is always a part of our mind which is awake and therefore gives us the sense of knowership of our existence. Ultimately, the mind also cannot be aware unless there is something that witnesses its functioning. The subtlest level of awareness in us can be called unit-consciousness .It qualifies the existence of our mind. Without it, mind would not be conscious at all. That is why, the entity beyond mind is called Consciousness. It lends its power of awareness to mind and enables it to become cognizant of its bearing. The totality of all unit-consciousness is called Cosmic-Consciousness or Supreme Consciousness. Hence, Supreme Consciousness is the omni-telepathic entity that is all-knowing and ultimate knower of everything. Our mind reflects the power of consciousness based on its subtlety. The crude mind cannot feel the power of consciousness but the subtle minds can fully reflect and feel the presence of consciousness. To some extent, every mind can sense its environment and has some capability of sending and receiving signals. Hence, it is a conscious entity. Robots too can be infused with that power but the true repository of awareness lies only in the Supreme Cognitive Faculty alone. It manifests its power with the help of Prakrti- Cosmic Operative Principle. That is why, consciousness is always referred to as the composite of Cognition(Shiva) and Energy(Shakti). Its rank varies depending on the degree of influence of Shakti over Shiva. In Nirgun'a Brahma, Prakrti has no influence and in `matter´, it has its greatest binding influence. Q 14: Do we have a “free-will”? A 14 : Human mind is endowed with an uncanny ability to “think freely” and “choose” between different possibilities. This has given the impression to evolutionists that there is no pre-determined future. Because of the capacity for thought, humans are not only free to choose between given possibilities, but also able to conceive novel possibilities and explore their consequences. The unpredictability implied by quantum mechanics has also done away with the Newtonian world view, in which future events are predetermined following the law of cause and effect viz.,“Each action has an equal and opposite reaction.” However, we also know that we are not absolutely free. We are conditioned by our past, by our present and limited view of the future. While we are capable to respond to human constraints, we do have some freedom of action. It would be more correct to say that humans have a “free will” only within the jurisdiction of their mental capacities. Beyond it, we are just like puppets in the hands of the puppeteer. Just as cow is tied with a long string and moves about thinking that it has freedom of movement, we too are tied by a long string of “unit-mind” and carry a false notion of total free-will. Rather, in the ultimate, our future also is at the mercy of the Supreme Cognitive Faculty who through the noose of Prakrti (cosmic operative principle) keeps us bound in this mortal world. We must always act but the fruits of our actions are always in our hands. That is why, the wise do not stay attached to their actions or to the fruits thereof. We must do our best and leave the rest to the Supreme Consciousness. Q 15: How should we act? A 15: The universe is sustained by actions (karma). Where there is any expression, there is invariably vibration (spandan) and behind the vibration, there is action—be it physical, physico-psychic, psychic, psycho-spiritual, or spiritual. Inaction is indicative of death, not of life. For the sake of self-preservation even, we need to engage in some action. Furthermore, every action gives rise to reactions—be they in potential form (Samskaras) or ready to be experienced (bhoga). We are tied to our actions and reactions and this cycle keeps us tied to the noose of Prakrti (cosmic operative principle). As long as we remain engrossed with individual ‘i’-feeling, we remain tied to the reactions of the actions performed by our 'i' feeling. This keeps us yoked to the cycle of birth and death. Only when we identify our i-feeling with Supreme Brahma(Cosmic Consciousness), we can begin the process of dis-identification with our little `i´. When our i-feeling is completely ensconced in the Supreme-subjectivated “I”-feeling, we can begin to get freed from the vicious cycle of karmas. Good actions yield good results and bad actions yield bad results—yet both good and bad actions are like chains. Good actions may be called chains of gold and bad actions as chains of iron. The proper way to act is to first get established in cosmic-ideation and then perform actions as an instrument of Divine. The practical process of this science of action can be learnt from the spiritual teachers (acharyas) of Ananda-Marga. This practice leads to annihilation of Samskaras (reactive momenta) and ultimately brings Mukti (Liberation) and Moks’a (Emancipation or Salvation or liberation of a permanent nature.) Q 16 : How can we be happy? A 16: Happiness is a state of mind. Some become happy with little possessions and some are unhappy despite their enormous accumulated wealth. H=w/d. Happiness is wealth divided by our desires. If we are not established in santos’a (contentment), no amount of wealth can enhance our happiness. Hence, self-restraint and self-control is essential to control our desires. Happiness is most common in societies which provide sufficient purchasing power to all its citizens, proper affordable health care, free education, personal freedom and equality. Happy people tend to be self-confident, open to experience and have good personal relations. In the end, those who have attained mastery over all their vrttis (mind and its expressions) are most likely to experience inner peace and a state of tranquility, equipoise and permanent happiness. True happiness stems from the philosophy of “Live and let others live.” Genuine happiness will come only when the needs of all are satisfactorily met and the disparities are wiped out. Diversity is healthy for a progressive social and economic order but disparities are a bane (curse) of the human society. An all-round renaissance which will unite the entire human family by a cosmic-ideal and benevolent philosophy alone is the panacea for creating a happy world. Of course, to actualize these ideals, proper education must be imparted to one and all from the early age. Actions inspired by universal love (neo-humanism) can convert unhappy world into a happy world. Q 17 : Why cannot we live forever? A 17: Evolution has predisposed us to age and die because fitness is achieved more easily by fast reproduction than by long life. Aging is the result of a variety of deterioration processes. It is unlikely that we will achieve biological immortality in the near future, in spite of a constantly increasing life-span. Yet, we live not only on the physical plane. We also carry a mind and consciousness which transcends temporal and spatial barriers. We achieve immortality only when our unit-mind merges in the eternal cosmic-mind and our unit-consciousness gets united with Supreme Consciousness. “Oneness in objectivity leads to oneness in subjectivity.” When our mind expands, our consciousness automatically widens its horizons. Supreme Consciousness alone is immortal and never dies. We too can attain immortality by uniting with that Cosmic Ocean of Consciousness. At that stage, we become omni-telepathic, omniscient, and omni-present. One who attains that stage is called Mukta-Purus’a (liberated soul). The Mukta-Purus’a is uninfluenced by the binding principle (Prakrti) and can guide others also to attain emancipation. True sad-guru (Preceptor) is one who has attained that exalted rank. Such a preceptor leads a moral and exemplary life and becomes a beacon-light for humanity for all times. In the past, Sada-Shiva, Shrii Krs’na won the admiration of humanity. Similarly, Shrii Shrii Anandamurtijii left a rich legacy for sincere spiritual seekers for all time to come. Such personalities never die. Their consciousness and grace lives forever—and guides genuine spiritual seekers irrespective of caste, creed, nationality, race or social and economic status. They belong to the whole humanity and their ideas contribute to the happiness of entire living world and human civilization. Q18 : What is the meaning of life? A 18: The first and foremost goal of every creature is to secure its survival (Asti.) hence, the entire humanity must come together to ensure the survival of all species and to preserve the bio-diversity at all costs. In this endeavor lies the compassion of developed creatures of this universe. To deprive anyone the right to exist is suicidal for entire humanity. Second, each creature is endowed with some unique potentialities and capabilities. All species of flora and fauna also carry their unique capacities. Even so-called inanimate objects possess unique specialties. We must, therefore, understand those hidden capabilities of one and all. If we understand, we are more likely to preserve those treasures of the universe and utilize them optimally for the welfare of all. So Bhati or Sustainable and Progressive development is the second task for human beings on this earth. Finally, the ultimate aim of human life is attainment of Anandam or Parama-Purus’a (Supreme Consciousness)—the desideratum of our total life journey. It may take one life time or a million years but sooner or later, we must establish ourselves in the grand splendor of the all-pervasive Cosmic-Consciousness. We are travelers on the path of eternity. While moving towards that subjective goal, we also need to maintain an objective adjustment with temporal, spatial and personal boundaries of this relative world. Hence, our journey should be a proper, well-balanced continuous journey. That is why, “Self-realization (Atma Moks’artham) and Service to Humanity (Jagat Hitayaca)” alone can be the lasting motto for entire humanity. This will make our life meaningful and blissful at the same time. This is the unifying positive philosophy for entire humanity as propounded by Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiiji (1921-1990). Q 19. What is the root cause of poverty in the world? A 19 : Despite all the aid that has been provided year after year, the poverty has not been eliminated from this world. The root cause of poverty is the exploitative mentality that underlies all aid and charitable efforts. Charity cannot solve the long term problems. It can only provide a brief breathing space from the cruel impact of defective socio-economic orders prevalent in the world. Hence, the sure way to eliminate poverty is to raise socio-economic consciousness through the messages of PROUT as propounded by late philosopher seer Shri P.R.Sarkar. PROUT stands for Progressive Utilization of material,psychic and spiritual potentialities for the good of all,rather than for just a few. PROUT calls for preservation of maximum bio-diversity and complete elimination of all unjust disparities. PROUT attempts to replace a philosophy of insecurity by a philosophy of abundance &amp; maximum amenities for one and all. It does this by bringing our socio-economic systems in total alignment with bounties of nature which are inherently abundant. Q 20: Isn't technology the panacea for solving all the problems facing the planet? A 20: Appropriate use of technology is a potent driving force for hastening the change towards a progressive and happier world. However, technology by itself cannot deliver peace and prosperity to this world. Technology is only a means, a tool. When used appropriately by just people and for good intentions, it can save us from much human suffering. On the other hand, when it is used by vested interests, it can cause much havoc to all species on the earth and even delay the movement towards a progressive and happier world. Hence, it is important that arts, science and technology must be goaded towards universal welfare and blessedness. Neo-humanist values exemplified by service-minded visionaries or leaders (sadvipras) and supported by a widespread adherence to sentient life style with in an exploitation-free socio-economic order alone can ensure a blissful world. Let all the righteous forces of the world unite under the banner of One Cosmic Ideology and bury all narrow sentiments and hasten the advent of a genuine cosmic-family . Such an ideology can usher in an all round renaissance in all spheres of life , liberate human intellect from all dogmas and we may lead us to experience a true paradise on earth for the first time. december 11, 2009 post
108 2010 Yoga Educators Conference <div> The Fourth Annual Yoga Educators Conference was the sweetest of all and took place in Ydrefors from July 18-22nd, 2010 and concluded with a film titled "A Journey of Joy" made by RAWA Films and directed by Dada Shankarsanananda Avadhuta and a heart warming cultural evening with star performance by Sister Jyoshna &amp; others. The focus was on the specialties of Intuitional Science besides delving deep into the science behind yogic life style. A special session on Microvita and Intuitional Science was also devised. The certificates of attendance were awarded to all participants. On the first day, Ac. Shambhushivananda Avt. Kulapati, Ananda Marga Gurukula gave an inaugural class on the Identity of Ananda Marga Yoga amidst beautiful sunny weather. It was followed by a dynamic workshop on Bio-Psychology led by Sister Jyotirekha. Her workshop was filled with fun, laughter and lots of useful technical information. Dr. Jyoshna shared her research into the kiirtan styles of Rahr. Yoga Classes were held twice daily by different yoga teachers. Participants from over 20 countries made the event a memorable one. The 2010 Conference also coincides with the 20th Anniversary of Ananda Marga Gurukula. Special themes for this years' YEC were: Bio-Psychology by Jyotirekha'; Science of Kiirtan by Dr. Jyoshna, Ph.D.; Yogatherapy: Case Studies by Dr. Marta Antunes MD (Madhuvanii); Yoga- Sadhana by Ac. Shambhushivananda Avt.; Microvita, Creativity and Intuitional Science by Sundara; Meditation Lab by Dr. Sauli Shantatman Siekkinen MD (Finland); and a lot more. Detailed program is found below. <h3>Participants</h3> <ol> <li>Dr. Shantatman MD (Finland)</li> <li>Dada Shankarshanananda (Singapore)</li> <li>Jyotirekha (Brazil/Sweden)</li> <li>Dr. Marta Antunes MD (Madhuvanii - Portugal)</li> <li>David Aveiro (Jinanatman - Portugal)</li> <li>Kobe (Stockholm)</li> <li>Krsnadeva (Sweden)</li> <li>Dada Devajinana</li> <li>Dada Harikrpananda</li> <li>Dada Shambhushivananda</li> <li>Joshika (Taiwan)</li> <li>Mark Maetraya (Malta)</li> <li>Shivapriya</li> <li>Mukul</li> <li>Indira (Singapore)</li> <li>Mrs Morales &amp; others (Malta)</li> <li>Ashok (Austria/Germany)</li> <li>Pritilata (Germany)</li> <li>Sujata</li> <li>Sadhana (Germany)</li> <li>Lilian Koh (Singapore)</li> <li>Alma Gonzales (Singapore)</li> <li>Debbie Goh (Singapore)</li> <li>Nirainjan (UK)</li> <li>Gopinatha (Argentina)</li> <li>Anupam (Syria)</li> <li>Kusumita (Norway)</li> <li>Sundara &amp; Nellie (Holland)</li> <li>Didi Ananda Uddaya (Germany/Norway)</li> <li>Taraka</li> <li>Dr. Jyoshna PhD (UK)</li> <li>Bhavani (Germany)</li> <li>Pranakrsna (Norway)</li> <li>Anandi (Stockholm)</li> <li>Sandra (Stockholm)</li> <li>Dr. Dhanjoo Ghista</li> <li>Ramanuja</li> <li>Sumana (Stockholm)</li> <li>Ajay (Stockholm)</li> </ol> <h3>Program</h3> <strong>Day 1: (18th Arrival day)</strong> Afternoon: Opening Ceremony The identity of Ananda Marga Yoga: Ac. Shambhushivananda PhD (1hr) Bio Psychology: Sis. Jyotirekha (1.5hr) Evening: Healthy Eating, Healthy Living: Sis. Kusumita (1hr) <strong>Day 2: (19th July)</strong> Morning: Microvita and Intuitional science: Bro. Sundara Afternoon: The Science of Kiirtana: Dr. Jyoshna PhD <strong>Day 3: (20th July)</strong> Morning: Norra Kvill Nature Park: Walking meditation Afternoon: Intellect, Intuition and Will: Dr. Sauli Shantatman Siekkinen MD (Finland) Evening Movie: “A journey in Joy”: The Ananda Marga documentary by Dada Shankarsanananda. <strong>Day 4: (21st July)</strong> Morning: "Yoga Therapy: by Dr. Marta Antunes (Madhuvanii) Afternoon: "Yoga Therapy - Case studies from Madeira Island (Portugal): by Dr. Marta Antunes (Madhuvanii) Evening cultural program: <strong>Day 5: (22nd July)</strong> Closing ceremony and give out Certificate of Attendance </div> June 10, 2010 post
110 Meditation to Prisoners Rajadhiraja Yoga Prison staff given meditation classes <a title="" href=""></a> Rajadhiraja Yoga Religious beliefs can coexist <a title="" href=""></a> august 29, 2010 post
114 Sacred Plants <a title="" href=""></a> Sacred Plants have been used in rituals and ceremonies in every culture. Some of them have healing properties while others have qualities of aesthetics and beauty. Meditators utilize the plants to create a suitable ambiance for collective spiritual practices. May 29, 2010 post
117 Secrets of prolonging aging Vegetarians have been reported to avoid cancers. The study involving 60,000 people found those who followed a vegetarian diet developed notably fewer cancers of the blood, bladder and stomach. (BBC Report July1,2009) Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiji lists the following items for living a long life: 1. proper physical labour 2.Eating as soon as one feels hungry 3.Going to sleep as soon as one feels sleepy 4.Regularity in spiritual practices 5.Fasting at intervals 6.Performing half-bath before meditation,sleep and meals 7.Yogurt(Curd) and raw foods 8.Getting out of bed in the Brahma Muhu'rtta (dawn) 9.Sixteen Points(codes of conduct for Ananda Margiis) A Belgium City proclaims a Veggie day every week. 10 HEALTH HABITS THAT WILL HELP YOU LIVE TO 100 By Deborah Kotz to-100/ The biggest factor that determines how well you age is not your genes but how well you live. Not convinced? A new study published in the British Medical Journal of 20,000 British folks shows that you can cut your risk of having a stroke in half by doing the following four things: being active for 30 minutes a day, eating five daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and avoiding cigarettes and excess alcohol. While those are some of the obvious steps you can take to age well, researchers have discovered that centenarians tend to share certain traits in how they eat, move about, and deal with stress -- the sorts of things we can emulate to improve our own aging process. Of course, getting to age 100 is enormously more likely if your parents did. Still, Thomas Perls, who studies the century-plus set at Boston University School of Medicine, believes that assuming you've sidestepped genes for truly fatal diseases like Huntington's, "there's nothing stopping you from living independently well into your 90s." Heck, if your parents and grandparents were heavy smokers, they might have died prematurely without ever reaching their true potential lifespan, so go ahead and shoot for those triple digits by following these 10 habits. 1. DON'T RETIRE. "Evidence shows that in societies where people stop working abruptly, the incidence of obesity and chronic disease skyrockets after retirement," says Luigi Ferrucci, director of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Chianti region of Italy, which has a high percentage of centenarians, has a different take on leisure time. "After people retire from their jobs, they spend most of the day working on their little farm, cultivating grapes or vegetables," he says. "They're never really inactive." Farming isn't for you? Volunteer as a docent at your local art museum or join the Experience Corps, a program offered in 19 cities that places senior volunteers in urban public elementary schools for about 15 hours a week. 2. FLOSS EVERY DAY. That may help keep your arteries healthy. A 2008 New York University study showed that daily flossing reduced the amount of gum-disease-causing bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is thought to enter the bloodstream and trigger inflammation in the arteries, a major risk factor for heart disease. Other research has shown that those who have high amounts of bacteria in their mouth are more likely to have thickening in their arteries, another sign of heart disease. "I really do think people should floss twice a day to get the biggest life expectancy benefits," stresses Perls. 3. MOVE AROUND. "Exercise is the only real fountain of youth that exists," says Jay Olshansky, a professor of medicine and aging researcher at the University of Illinois at Chicago. "It's like the oil and lube job for your car. You don't have to do it, but your car will definitely run better." Study after study has documented the benefits of exercise to improve your mood, mental acuity, balance, muscle mass, and bones. "And the benefits kick in immediately after your first workout," Olshansky adds. Don't worry if you're not a gym rat. Those who see the biggest payoffs are the ones who go from doing nothing to simply walking around the neighborhood or local mall for about 30 minutes a day. Building muscle with resistance training is also ideal, but yoga classes can give you similar strength-training effects if you're not into weight lifting. 4. EAT A FIBER-RICH CEREAL FOR BREAKFAST. Getting a serving of whole-grains, especially in the morning, appears to help older folks maintain stable blood sugar levels throughout the day, according to a recent study conducted by Ferrucci and his colleagues. "Those who do this have a lower incidence of diabetes, a known accelerator of aging," he says. 5. GET AT LEAST SIX HOURS OF SHUT-EYE. Instead of skimping on sleep to add more hours to your day, get more to add years to your life. "Sleep is one of the most important functions that our body uses to regulate and heal cells," says Ferrucci. "We've calculated that the minimum amount of sleep that older people need to get those healing REM phases is about six hours." Those who reach the century mark make sleep a top priority. 6. CONSUME WHOLE FOODS, NOT SUPPLEMENTS. Strong evidence suggests that people who have high blood levels of certain nutrients -- selenium, beta-carotene, vitamins C and E -- age much better and have a slower rate of cognitive decline. Unfortunately, there's no evidence that taking pills with these nutrients provides those antiaging benefits. "There are more than 200 different carotenoids and 200 different flavonoids in a single tomato," points out Ferrucci, "and these chemicals can all have complex interactions that foster health beyond the single nutrients we know about like lycopene or vitamin C." Avoid nutrient-lacking white foods (breads, flour, sugar) and go for all those colorful fruits and vegetables and dark whole-grain breads and cereals with their host of hidden nutrients. 7. BE LESS NEUROTIC. It may work for Woody Allen, who infuses his worries with a healthy dose of humor, but the rest of us neurotics may want to find a new way to deal with stress. "We have a new study coming out that shows that centenarians tend not to internalize things or dwell on their troubles," says Perls. "They are great at rolling with the punches." If this inborn trait is hard to overcome, find better ways to manage when you're stressed: Yoga, exercise, meditation, tai chi, or just deep breathing for a few moments are all good. Ruminating, eating chips in front of the TV, binge drinking? Bad, very bad. 8. LIVE LIKE A SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST. Americans who define themselves as Seventh Day Adventists have an average life expectancy of 89, about a decade longer than the average American. One of the basic tenets of the religion is that it's important to cherish the body that's on loan from God, which means no smoking, alcohol abuse, or overindulging in sweets. Followers typically stick to a vegetarian diet based on fruits, vegetables, beans, and nuts, and get plenty of exercise. They're also very focused on family and community. 9. BE A CREATURE OF HABIT. Centenarians tend to live by strict routines, says Olshansky, eating the same kind of diet and doing the same kinds of activities their whole lives. Going to bed and waking up at the same time each day is another good habit to keep your body in the steady equilibrium that can be easily disrupted as you get on in years. "Your physiology becomes frailer when you get older," explains Ferrucci, "and it's harder for your body to bounce back if you, say, miss a few hours of sleep one night or drink too much alcohol." This can weaken immune defenses, leaving you more susceptible to circulating flu viruses or bacterial infections. 10. STAY CONNECTED. Having regular social contacts with friends and loved ones is key to avoiding depression, which can lead to premature death, something that's particularly prevalent in elderly widows and widowers. Some psychologists even think that one of the biggest benefits elderly folks get from exercise the strong social interactions that come from walking with a buddy or taking a group exercise class. Having a daily connection with a close friend or family member gives older folks the added benefit of having someone watch their back. "They'll tell you if they think your memory is going or if you seem more withdrawn," says Perls, "and they might push you to see a doctor before you recognize that you need to see one yourself." March 29, 2010 post
120 The Science of Raw and Cooked Veggies Fact or Fiction: Raw veggies are healthier than cooked ones ? Do vegetables lose their nutritional value when heated? By Sushma Subramanian Cooking is crucial to our diets. It helps us digest food without expending huge amounts of energy. It softens food, such as cellulose fiber and raw meat, that our small teeth, weak jaws and digestive systems aren't equipped to handle. And while we might hear from raw foodists that cooking kills vitamins and minerals in food (while also denaturing enzymes that aid digestion), it turns out raw vegetables are not always healthier. A study published in The British Journal of Nutrition last year found that a group of 198 subjects who followed a strict raw food diet had normal levels of vitamin A and relatively high levels of beta-carotene (an antioxidant found in dark green and yellow fruits and vegetables), but low levels of the antioxidant lycopene. Lycopene is a red pigment found predominantly in tomatoes and other rosy fruits such as watermelon, pink guava, red bell pepper and papaya. Several studies conducted in recent years (at Harvard Medical School, among others) have linked high intake of lycopene with a lower risk of cancer and heart attacks. Rui Hai Liu, an associate professor of food science at Cornell University who has researched lycopene, says that it may be an even more potent antioxidant than vitamin C. One 2002 study he did (published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry) found that cooking actually boosts the amount of lycopene in tomatoes. He tells that the level of one type of lycopene, cis-lycopene, in tomatoes rose 35 percent after he cooked them for 30 minutes at 190.4 degrees Fahrenheit (88 degrees Celsius). The reason, he says: the heat breaks down the plants' thick cell walls and aids the body's uptake of some nutrients that are bound to those cell walls. Cooked carrots, spinach, mushrooms, asparagus, cabbage, peppers and many other vegetables also supply more antioxidants, such as carotenoids and ferulic acid, to the body than they do when raw, Liu says. At least, that is, if they're boiled or steamed. A January 2008 report in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry said that boiling and steaming better preserves antioxidants, particularly carotenoid, in carrots, zucchini and broccoli, than frying, though boiling was deemed the best. The researchers studied the impact of the various cooking techniques on compounds such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Deep fried foods are notorious sources of free radicals, caused by oil being continuously oxidized when it is heated at high temperatures. These radicals, which are highly reactive because they have at least one unpaired electron, can injure cells in the body. The antioxidants in the oil and the vegetables get used up during frying in stabilizing the cycle of oxidation. Another study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 2002 showed that cooking carrots increases their level of beta-carotene. Beta-carotene belongs to a group of antioxidant substances called carotenoids, which give fruits and vegetables their red, yellow, and orange colorings. The body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A, which plays an important role in vision, reproduction, bone growth and regulating the immune system. The downside of cooking veggies, Liu says: it can destroy the vitamin C in them. He found that vitamin C levels declined by 10 percent in tomatoes cooked for two minutes—and 29 percent in tomatoes that were cooked for half an hour at 190.4 degrees F (88 degrees C). The reason is that Vitamin C, which is highly unstable, is easily degraded through oxidation, exposure to heat (it can increase the rate at which vitamin C reacts with oxygen in the air) and through cooking in water (it dissolves in water). Liu notes, however, that the trade-off may be worth it since vitamin C is prevalent in far more fruits and vegetables than is lycopene. Among them: broccoli, oranges, cauliflower, kale and carrots. Besides, cooked vegetables retain some of their vitamin C content. That said, research shows that some veggies, including broccoli, are healthier raw rather than cooked. According to a study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in November 2007, heat damages the enzyme myrosinase, which breaks down glucosinates (compounds derived from glucose and an amino acid) in broccoli into a compound known as sulforaphane. Research published in the journal Carcinogenesis in December 2008 found that sulforaphane might block the proliferation of and kill precancerous cells. A 2002 study in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences also found that sulforaphane may help fight the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which causes ulcers and increases a person's risk of stomach cancer. On the other hand, indole, an organic compound, is formed when certain plants, particularly cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage, are cooked. According to research in The Journal of Nutrition in 2001, indole helps kill precancerous cells before they turn malignant. And while boiling carrots was found to increase carotenoid levels, another study found that it leads to a total loss of polyphenols, a group of chemicals found in raw carrots. Specific polyphenols have been shown to have antioxidant properties and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, according to a 2005 report in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Comparing the healthfulness of raw and cooked food is complicated, and there are still many mysteries surrounding how the different molecules in plants interact with the human body. The bottom line, says Liu, is to eat your veggies and fruits no matter how they're prepared. "We cook them so they taste better," Liu says. "If they taste better, we're more likely to eat them." And that's the whole idea March 29, 2009 post
122 Rational Fasting Public Fasting Activates the Youthing Gene Fasting, particularly Spiritual Fasting, diminishes the physical stresses of excess food, emotional stresses, psychological stresses, spiritual stresses, and environmental stresses, all of which are optimal for activating the youthing genes. Fasting is an accelerated form of calorie restriction. Gabriel regularly sees evidence indicating an activation of the youthing gene expression. Gabriel observes people experiencing a radical youthing of body and mind. Green Juice Fasting consistantly and significantly begins the process of reversing chronic degenerative diseases such as: high blood pressure, chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, digestive disorders, Syndrome X and diabetes. Through the process of fasting, people turn on their youthing genes and reprogram to an earlier stage of their genetic expression, returning them to health. It becomes clear that not only what we eat, but what we don’t eat, speaks to our genes. ------------------------- Turning On Our Youthing Genes Foods that we eat, or don’t eat, communicate with our genes, for better or for worse! Foods do not change the genotype, which is the physical structure of the genes... the foods we eat do change the way the message in the genes is expressed. The principle being that not only what we eat, but how we live and the stresses that we create, directly affects gene expression. The implications of detailed genetic research is quite exciting. One of the most important elements is that we have a potential, under the right conditions, to access all our genetic information from every stage of development, from embryo to an adult. The genetic expression of every cell in our body, is potentially accessible at any time. The significance of this is that through proper living, diet, fasting, lifestyle, exercise and emotional, mental, and spiritual development, we have the opportunity to activate our youthing genes. ------------------------- Caloric Restriction Dr. Spindler noted that the caloric restriction (Which happens naturally with Fasting and eating a Vegan Live Food Diet) prevents deterioration or genetic change gradually over life span and reverses aging in a short period of time. His research, shows that it doesn’t matter what age you begin. Calorie Restriction has an effect of turning on the expression of the youthing genes, and turning off the expression of the aging genes. We all have the full memory of all our gene expressions in all our chromosomes, all we have to do is push the right button to get a healthy expression. This finding suggests that calorie restriction could potentially reverse aging and improve and extend lifespan. An important part of Dr. Spindler’s research, is that short-term caloric restriction can turn on the majority of the anti-aging genes. His impression, is that if people lose ten pounds (common during a 7-Day Green Juice Fasting Retreat), regardless of what their weight is before they start the diet, many of their physiological parameters of health will improve. These include: improved insulin sensitivity, improved blood glucose, decreased blood insulin levels, decreased heart rate, improved blood pressure and a potential anti-cancer effect. ------------------------- Taking people on Spiritual fasts four times per year for many years, I am continually amazed by the power of this healing process. Paul Bragg, one of the fathers of the holistic health movement, expressed this phenomenon simply: ‘‘The greatest discovery by modern man (woman) is the power to rejuvenate physically, mentally, and Spiritually with rational fasting.’’ March 29, 2009 post
128 A New Website on Rajadhiraja Yoga Live Webcase of National Conference of Spirituality &amp; New Economy There will be a live Webcast of the event "National Conference of Spirituality &amp; New Economy" on April 4th &amp; 5th ,2009 from 9am to 3pm (Central time) at Richardson,Texas. You can watch this on the website You can watch webcast <a title="" href=""></a> april 2, 2009 post
130 What are we eating and drinking? We are living in chemical world, from melamin, aspartame, glutamate, etc. Not only water is not pure from hormone or other chemicals. We as vegetarian love to eat soy product like tofu and soymilk, but studies found soy (esp. if non-fermented) has many significant problem for health - especially for children... So what does non fermented soy contains ? A ) Goitrogens - This is the compound that depresses the function of thyroid , therefore causing hypothyroidism in sensitive individuals and eventually thyroid cancer. How much is too much? This varies depending age. According to the Soy Online Service, infant should not take in any soy. For adults, just 30 mg of soy isoflavones per day is the amount found to have a negative impact on thyroid function. This amount of soy isoflavones is found in just 5-8 ounces of soy milk, or 1.5 ounces of miso. Interestingly, while miso have the phto-estrogenic effect, it does not have the enzyme inhibitory effect because it is fermented. Other fermented soy product include soy sauce or tempeh. (from ) B ) Phytic acid - Soy contains high concentration of Phytic acid that could block the absorption of minerals like iron, calcium,copper and especially zinc in the intestinal tract. Zinc is called the intelligence mineral because it is needed for optimal development and functioning of the brain and nervous system. It plays a role in protein synthesis and collagen formation; it is involved in the blood-sugar control mechanism and thus protects against diabetes; it is needed for a healthy reproductive system. Zinc is a key component in numerous vital enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. Phytates found in soy products interfere with zinc absorption more completely than with other minerals.19 Zinc deficiency can cause a "spacey" feeling that some vegetarians may mistake for the "high" of spiritual enlightenment. Mercola on Soy C ) Trypsin Inhibitor - This negative compound reduces your ability to digest protein. Feeding your baby and child with unfermented soy product regularly would depress his/her ability to grow normally. Another type of bean that exhibits strong trypsin inhibitory property is LIMA BEANS. D ) Nitrites - which are potent carcinogens, are formed during spray-drying, and a toxin called lysinoalanine is formed during alkaline processing. Numerous artificial flavorings, particularly MSG ( A compound that hurts your brain cells ) are added to soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein products to mask their strong "beany" taste and to impart the flavor of meat. Mercola on Soy E ) phyto-oestrogens - which are supposed to help alleviate the effects of low estrogen production in the body, is now believed to be a causative factor in breast cancer and infantile leukemia from A Comment: About the Trypsin Inhibitor, what I understand is that it is destroyed by high heat as during the cooking process so soya should be cooked and soya bean oil should be refined. They need not be fermented. About phyto-oestrogens, there is some research that says phyto-oestrogens can help to reduce menopausal symptoms like hot flashes but may aggravate tumor growth in endocrine related diseases like breast cancer and prostate cancer. It may also reduce sperm count in males and cause malformation of the reproductive system in male fetus. Phyto-oestrogens (phyto means plant) seem to mimic several hormones in both males and females. March 31, 2009 post
131 Learn Sentient Cooking on Line <div>In these days of shrinking globe, you can learn vegetarian cooking by logging on to <a title="" href=""></a>. Also, Ms. Carolina Fossum in Oslo is preparing a special book on Sentient Diet for Children. Stay tuned. Sweden training centre has a cookbook called Tantric Kitchen. You can order your copy from Ydrefors, 59081 Gullringen, Sweden.</div> March 31, 2009 post
133 Research on Fluoride and Pineal Gland Worth reading, especially if you're working on meditation and opening your third eye/pineal gland, read this research article: "The effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland." <a title="" href=""></a> February 27, 2009 post
136 Laughter Yoga and Sound Healing <a title="" href=""></a> Laughter is the best medicine and it has been known for centuries that laughter uplifts our spirits.Laughter yoga combines laughing with yogic breathing exercises. Laughter is done without any reason. <a title="" href=""></a> . March 31, 2009 post
138 Usefulness of Meditation for Military Care Providers Center for Contemplative Mind in Society reports that more than 20 years of empirical studies offers strong evidence that meditative and contemplative practices can aid in relieving the acute symptoms of fatigue and burnout, including depression and anxiety, and physiological symptoms such as insomnia and a weakened immune system. Additionally, these practices help to cultivate cognitive and physiological capacities that support overall well-being and strengthen the resiliency of care providers. February 11, 2009 post
141 Usefulness of Meditation for Military Care Providers Author: Center for Contemplative Mind in Society , Mass. USA Notes: More than 20 years of empirical studies offers strong evidence that meditative and contemplative practices can aid in relieving the acute symptoms of fatigue and burnout, including depression and anxiety, and physiological symptoms such as insomnia and a weakened immune system. Additionally, these practices help to cultivate cognitive and physiological capacities that support overall well-being and strengthen the resiliency of care providers. Specifically, meditation practices can support individuals in developing five attributes that are key in preventing and treating burnout and compassion fatigue: 1) compassion and self-compassion 2) resilience 3) self-awareness 4) metacognition and attention 5) meaning When considering the use of these practices with military care providers, planners should take into account: 1) the creation of a support system through the intervention 2) the importance of building trust and rapport with the participants 3) the timing of the intervention 4) presenting the material in a religious or a secular context Finally, based on empirical studies and anecdotal remarks gathered through this literature review, it is probable that Soldiers will benefit by receiving improved care from military care providers who have been supported to develop greater skills in self-care and self-awareness. January 31, 2009 post
143 Yoga for the Brain <div> <div> <div> <div>Author:</div> CBS Report</div> </div> </div> <a title="" href=""></a> . Yoga for the Brain includes certain exercises that exercise the left and the right brain. Some of these exercises are used for autistic children with good results. In India, some of these exercises were used as punishment tactic also. January 15, 2009 post
145 Yoga in Romania <a title="" href=""></a> Yoga in Romania has been maligned due to scandals about one Romanian Guru. Now this article presents the correct aspect of Yoga from one of Ananda Marga Yoga teachers. January 6, 2009 post
147 Asthma Treatment on Full moon night Ac.Ounkareshvarananda Avadhuta led the yoga shivir in Hitauda, Nepal on the full moon night from midnight to 3am to cure those who have asthmatic condition. The light of full moon is supposed to have a therapeutic effect on asthmatic patients. Some ayurvedic medicines were also provided to patients. Almost 40 persons participated in this shivir. January 4, 2009 post
149 Swastika Tattoos Swastika has had different symbolism in different cultures. For the first time, Swastika is now being etched on childrens' arms in south africa as a symbol of courage and determination. november 29, 2008 post
151 Meditation and Concentration Ananda Marga Meditation is based on the idea that channelization is possible by superimposing positive idea rather than fighting to kick out unwanted thoughts. Mental control research led by Dr Wenzlaff and Dr. Bates of University of Texas at San Antonio have found that "attempts to suppress unwanted thoughts can backfire when cognitive demands arise or intentional control subsides. The present research examined the relative efficacy of an alternative form of mental control that involves concentrating on desirable thoughts instead of trying to suppress unwanted material. Using a novel cognitive measure that addresses some of the methodological issues associated with previous suppression research, a series of three studies indicates that a concentration strategy of mental control circumvents the problems associated with thought suppression. The findings are consistent with ironic process theory, which maintains that suppression invokes a monitoring process that is exclusively focused on goal-antithetical thoughts, whereas a concentration strategy involves a broader range of monitored thoughts that is less likely to undermine mental control. " november 29, 2008 post
154 Research on Mind Control Author: Wenzlaff and Bates The Relative Efficacy of Concentration and Suppression Strategies of Mental Control Richard M. Wenzlaff The University of Texas at San Antonio Danielle E. Bates The University of Texas at San Antonio Mental control research has found that attempts to suppress unwanted thoughts can backfire when cognitive demands arise or intentional control subsides. The present research examined the relative efficacy of an alternative form of mental control that involves concentrating on desirable thoughts instead of trying to suppress unwanted material. Using a novel cognitive measure that addresses some of the methodological issues associated with previous suppression research, a series of three studies indicates that a concentration strategy of mental control circumvents the problems associated with thought suppression. The findings are consistent with ironic process theory, which maintains that suppression invokes a monitoring process that is exclusively focused on goal-antithetical thoughts, whereas a concentration strategy involves a broader range of monitored thoughts that is less likely to undermine mental control. This research lends support to the modalities employed in Ananda Marga Spiritual Practises. October 5, 2009 post
157 Background to Sanskrit (Sam'skrta) Author: From Internet Open Resources Shri Shri P.R. Sarkar founded the Samskrta Vidyapiitha at Anandanagar, India. It was his great hope that Samskrta language should be studied and propogated due to its rich history and cultural legacy. Through his works such as Ananda Sutram, Shabda Cayanika and Prabhat Samgiita, he has further enriched this classical language. He also gave directions for Roman Samskrta so that Samskrta can be easily written in Roman script and does not have to rely on Devana'gari script. Sanskrit is the oldest and richest language of India. The study of this language has continued for about five thousand years. The oldest form of this language is found in the Rgveda. The composition of the Rgveda is supposed to have taken place in 2500 BC. This language was called a Vedic language from the time of the Rgveda to the upanisad. In ancient times the language, used only in the public domain was called bhasa. When it passed through a process of reform or purification, it was called Sangskrta (Sam -kr + ta). There are two stages of Sanskrit from the chronological point of view, eg Vedic and later Vedic (or Laukika). The later Vedic language is also called Classical Sanskrit. The main difference between these two languages is in their instinctive accents. In Vedic vowel sound there are three kinds of pronunciation, eg udatta (high), anudatta (low) and svarita (mixed), but in Sanskrit this distinction is not maintained. Panini's Astadhyayi is the main Sanskrit grammar book. In a later period, Astadhyayi became even more authoritative through the contributions of Vartikakara Vararuchi (or Katyayana) and Bhasyakara (the commentator) Patanjali. So the complete Astadhyayi is called Trimunivyakarana (contribution of three grammarians). The rules, which have been compiled in Astadhyai, are considered to be essential for Sanskrit language and literature. Besides Astadhyai there are many other famous grammars in Sanskrit. Among them Katantravyakarana by Sharvavarman (100 AD), Chandravyakarana by Chandragomin (c 700 AD), Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari (700 AD), Katantrasutravrtti by Durgasingha (900 AD), Siddhahemachandranushasana by Hemachandra (1050-1100 AD), Mugdhavodhavyakarana by Vopadeva (1200-1250 AD), Jaumaravyakarana by Kramadishvara (1200-1250), Saupadmavyakarana by Padmanabha Datta (1300-1350), Harinamamrta by Rupagosvami, (c 1470-1559), and Siddhantakaumudi by Bhattojidiksita (1700 AD) are worth mentioning. Sanskrit is a language in the Indo-European family of languages. It belongs to a sub-branch of Indo-Iranian. From the philological and geographical point of view, Indo-European languages are divided into two groups Satam and Kentum. Sanskrit falls under the satam group. It has some startling similarities with Greek and Latin. For this reason, it seems that these languages originated in the same place and they are thus known as basic Aryan or basic Indo-European languages. The Sanskrit language has no particular alphabet. Wherever the language studied, the alphabet of that area is adopted for it. But the Nagari or Devanagari alphabet is widely used and internationally accepted for Sanskrit. Sanskrit is also known as an Old Indo-Aryan language. The Aryan language is divided into three stages: Old Indo-Aryan Vedic and Sanskrit; Middle Indo-Aryan pali, Prakrta and apabhrangsha and New Indo-Aryan languages- Bangla, Odia, Hindi, Marathi etc. The use of Sanskrit as a language was first observed in the ramayana (Sundarakanda, 30/17-18). Sanskrit is an inflectional language. In this language the role of case-ending, and of suffix and prefix is very significant. A word used in a sentence with an inflection is called pada. A word without inflection cannot be used in a sentence. For this reason, the change of the position of a pada in a sentence does not alter the meaning, and for this reason there is no rigid rule for the positioning of a word in sentence constructions. There are three genders in Sanskrit (masculine, feminine and neuter) and are three numbers (singular, dual and plural). In the verb form there is no change of gender but it has three numbers and three persons (third, second and first). To indicate the tense and mood (including past, present and future tense), there are ten classes of verbal forms. In brief these are known as ten la-karas. The roots are divided into three groups- parasmaipada, atmanepada and ubhayapada. Sanskrit is an ornate language and numerous metres are seen in Sanskrit verse. Since it was regularize according to the grammar of Panini, no noticeable change of this language has taken place for a long time now. Initially, the geographical area of Sanskritic studies was confined to the northern part of India and then it extended to western and eastern India. Gradually its use spread among the neighbouring Dravid, Austric and Sino-Tibetan peoples. Its influence also spread to the neighbouring countries, eg China, Tibet. Sumatra, Borneo, and even to neighbouring Western countries. Sanskrit is related inseparably to ancient Indian religion, philosophy, literature and culture. A knowledge of Sanskrit is very essential for analysing the structural nature of the language of the region and for searching the origins of new Indo-Aryan languages. At present the study of Sanskrit is mostly confined to India. In Bangladesh Sanskrit has been studied from the ancient period, though at present its study is limited to a few areas. In many schools and colleges under the Board of Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Jessore Sanskrit language and literature are studied. In the University of Dhaka, Chittagong and Rajshahi, Sanskrit is studied in BA (Hons), MA, MPhil and PhD courses. In the National University too there is provision for study of Sanskrit in BA and MA classes. Moreover, in various tols and chatuspathis under the sanskrit and pali education board Sanskrit is studied according to the traditional system. In this Board there is provision of examination in Adya, Madhya and Upadhi in different branches of Sanskrit. Sanskrit literature All branches of literature including poetry, prose and drama are to be found in Sanskrit. Innumerable books have been written in Sanskrit on different subjects, eg philology, comparative grammar, philosophy, rhetoric, logic, physiology, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, algebra, geometry, medical science, zoology, social welfare, sexology etc. Sanskrit texts can be divided into literature, philosophy, tantra, scriptures, science etc. The ancient books of the Hindu religion were written in Sanskrit. Sanskrit literature can be divided into four stages: Vedic, epic, puranic and classical. Vedic literature is divided into Sanghita (rk, saman, yajus and atharvan), Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisad. The Brahmana, relating to sacrifices or rituals, is called karmakanda, and the Upanisad is called the jnanakanda (philosophical part) of the vedas. In the Vedic period a kind of literature was written in the form of aphorism (sutra) and was known as sutra-literature. It is divided into four parts Shrauta, Grhya, Dharma and Shulvasutra. The rules of Shrauta sacrifice were written in Shrautasutra. The subject matter of Grhyasutra is the sacrificial rites to be followed by householders. The commandments and prohibitions relating to religion and secular affairs, the rules about the four castes (chaturvarna) and four stages of life (chaturashrama) were written in Dharmasutra. The rules regarding the measurement of land at the time of making sacrifices in altars are to be found in Shulvasutra. Sutra-literature is considered as a source book for acquiring knowledge about ancient Indian civilization and social life. There are six Vedangas that have been written for the convenience of the study of the Vedas; these are Shiksa, Kalpa, Nirukta, Vyakarana, Chhandas and Jyotisa. Shiksa is actually on phonetics. The subject matter of Shiksa is varna, svara, matra, vala, sama, santana etc. Every Veda has its unique Shiksa. Kalpa is sutra literature. Since sacrificial rites are confirmed through it, so its name is kalpa. Nirukta was composed by Yaska (c 600 BC). The words of the Vedas are collected and explained in Nirukta. Vyakarana is a very essential Vedanga. The Vyakaranarnava of Vyasadeva and the Maheshavyakarana of Maheshvara are known to be very ancient grammar texts, but none of them have been found. For the reading of metrical Vedic hymns Chhanda is essential. Vedic hymns are composed in syllabic meters; they are not like the gana-chhandas of Sanskrit. There are seven metres in the Veda gayatri, usnik, anustup, vrhati, pankti, jagati and tristubh. The jyotisa was created for learning about the planets and stars etc to determine the time of sacrifice. Vrhaddevata and Anukramani are also worth knowing. The gods and goddesses of the Rgveda are discussed in the Vrhaddevata of Shaunaka and the rsi, chandas, devata and viniyoga related to Vedic hymns are discussed in Anukramani. The Ramayana and the mahabharata were composed in the epic period. In these two vast epics the essence of India is reflected. Valmiki is the writer of the Ramayana. According to popular beliefs Valmiki was the first creator of worldly metre and the first poet. In his Ramayana, written in anustup metre, Valmiki wanted to celebrate the glorious deeds of an ideal man. The ideal man for him was ramachandra. There are seven kandas in the Ramayana. The Mahabharata is massive in its size and scope. Krsnadvaipayana Vedavyasa composed the Mahabharata in eighteen parvas (chapter) about the war between the Kauravas and Pandavas. In course of time, compositions of many unknown poets were added to it. More than one lakh verses can be found in the present Mahabharata. The bhagavadgita or the Gita as it called falls under the Bhismaparva of Mahabharata. The Gita, composed in eighteen chapters, is recognized as an independent and excellent book, where there is direction about the ways of jnana, karma and bhakti. Puranic literature is very vast. But eighteen mahapuranas and eighteen upapuranas are considered as the main puranas. puranas were composed in different times but Vyasa is known as the only composer of the Puranas. Mahapuranas have been classified according to the supremacy of three gods- brahma, Visnu and Shiva. The subject matter of Puranas include the creation, existence, destruction, regeneration of the universe; the stories of the Manus, gods, kings and dynasties etc are also discussed. In addition, philosophy, scriptures, rhetorics etc are also included in the Puranas as subjects. To know the political and social history of ancient India the Puranas are indispensable. Classical Sanskrit is mainly divided into two parts drshyakavya and shravyakavya. Dramatic literature is under drshyakavya and prose-poetry is under shravyakavya. The greatest poet of this period is kalidasa (100 BC). His predecessor was the famous dramatist Bhasa (500-400 BC) and Shudraka (300 BC) and a successor poet was Ashvaghosa (100 AD). Bhasa wrote thirteen plays including Svapnavasavadatta, Charudatta, Urubhanga. The plays of Bhasa are celebrated for the diversity of their themes and techniques, and are written based on the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and folktales. Shudraka's Mrchchhakatika is very remarkable in Sanskrit dramatic literature. The main works of Kalidasa are two mahakavyas Raghuvangsha and Kumarasambhava; two khandakavyas- Rtusanghara and Meghaduta; three plays Malavikagnimitra, Vikramorvashiya and Abhijnanashakuntala. The important works of Ashvaghosa are Buddhacharita and Saundarananda, the two mahakavyas and the play Shariputraprakarana. Among subsequent works, mention may be made of the Kundamala of Dinnaga (500 AD), Kiratarjuniya of Bharavi (600 AD), Bhattikavya or Ravanavadha of Bhatti (600 AD), Shishupalavadha of Magha (700 AD); Ratnavali of Shriharsa (700 AD); Uttararamacharita of Bhavabhuti (700/800 AD); Venisanghara of Bhattanarayana (800 AD), Mudraraksasa of Vishakhadatta (800/900 AD), Balaramayana of Rajashekhara (1000 AD); Gitagovinda of jayadeva (1200 AD), Naisadhacharita of Shriharsa (1200 AD), Pravodhachandrodaya of Krsnamishra (1100 AD), Chaitanyachandrodaya and Chaitanyacharitamrta of Kavikarnapura (1600 AD) etc. Some noteworthy mahakavyas based on history are the Navasahasankacharita of Padmagupta (1100 AD), Vikramankadevacarita of Vihlana (1100-1200 AD), Kumarapalacarita of Hemachandra (1080-1173 AD), Rajatarangini of Kahlana (1200 AD), and ramacharitam of Sandhyakar Nandi (1200-1300 AD). Rupa Goswami and Jiva Goswami, two famous poets of Bengal, have contributed a lot to Sanskrit literature. A kind of padyakavya named shatakakavya has been composed in approximately hundred verses. Their main themes are niti, shrngara, vairagya, bhakti and society. Some noteworthy kavyas are Amarushataka of Amaru (700 AD), Shrngarashataka, Nitishataka and Vairagyashataka of Bhartrhari (700 AD); Shantishataka of Shihlana, Bhallatashataka of Bhallata (800 AD), Apadeshashataka of Chandramanikya (1700 AD), and Apadeshiyashatashlokamalika of Rudramanikya. Vihlana's Chaurapanchashika is based on erotic sentiments. It was written in fifty verses and is a popular kavya. Kosakavya (anthology) is also included in padyakavya. Poems by different poets are compiled in kosakavya. Some noteworthy books are Kavindravachanasamuchchaya, compiled by Vidyadhara (1100 AD), Saduktikarnamrta of Shridharadasa (1300 AD), Sharngadharapaddhati of Sharngadhara (1400 AD), Subhasitasudhanidhi of Sayanacharaya (1400 AD), Subhasitavali of Vallabhadeva (1500 AD), Padyavali of Rupa Gosvami, Suktiratnahara or Subhasitaratnahara of Suryakavi (1600 AD), and Shlokamanjari of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891). Other types of kavyas famous in Sanskrit literature include shlesakavya, chitrakavya, vyakaranakavya, anyoktikavya, dutakavya, and stotrakavya. The second category of shravyakavya is gadyakavya (prose literature). The first instance of prose is to be found in Shuklayajurveda. Subsequently in Brahmana literature, some Upanisdas, vyakarana, and their commentaries were written in prose. Among prose literatures, celebrated works include Vasavadatta of Subandhu (500-700 AD), Dashakumaracharita of Dandin (700 AD), and Kadambari and Harsacharita of Vanabhatta (700 AD). Harsacharita, based on the life of Harsavardhana, is a famous work of prose. Mammoth story books were written in to teach morals. In Sanskrit literature, a story is called Katha. The writing and the development of stories started before the Christian era. The most famous and widespread story book in Sanskrit is the Panchatantra of Visnusharman (100/200 AD). Many stories were written based on the tales of this book. Hitopadesha is the most popular story book in Bengal. A man called Narayana wrote this work under the patronage of Dhavalachandra (1400 AD). Other famous narratives are Vrhatkatha of Gunadhya (100 AD), Shlokasanggraha of Buddhasvamin (800/900 AD), Vrhatkathamanjari of Ksemendra (1100 AD), Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva (1100 AD), vetalapanchavimshati of Shivadasa (1300 AD), Singhasanadvatringshika of Ksemankara (1300 AD), and Shukasaptatikatha of Chintamanibhatta (1300 AD). At present the Vrhatkatha is not to be found. According to some, it was written in Paishachi Prakrta and has seven lakh verses. Vrhatkathamanjari and Kathasaritsagara were composed in verse. One kind of kavya, called Champu mixes with prose and poetry. Some examples of this type of kavya are the Nalachampu and Madalasachampu of Trivikrama Bhatta (1100 AD), Yashastilakachampu of Jainacharya Somadeva (1000 AD), Ramayanachampu of Bhoja (1100 AD), Bhagavatachampu of Abhinava Kalidasa (1100 AD), Bharatachampu of Ananta Bhatta (1500 AD), Gopalachampu of Jiva Gosvami, and Anandavrndavanachampu of Kavikarnapura (1600 AD). Sanskrit rhetoric has a very rich tradition. The oldest book in Sanskrit on rhetoric is the Natyashastra of Bharata (200 BC-300 AD). Other important books are Kavyalangkara of Bhamaha (600-700 AD), Kavyadarsha of Dandin (600-700 AD), Kavyalangkarasutravrtti of Vamana (800 AD), Alangkarasarasanggraha of Udbhata (800-900 AD), Kavyalangkara of Rudrata (800 AD), Dvanyaloka of Anandavardhana (900 AD), Vakroktijivita of Kuntaka (1000 AD), Auchityavicharacharcha of Ksemendra (1000 AD), Dasharupaka of Dhananjaya (1000 AD), Kavyamimangsa of Rajashekhara (1000-1100 AD), Dvanyalokalochana and Abhinavabharati of Abhinavagupta (1100 AD), Kavyaprakasha of Mammata (1100 AD), Alangkarasarvasva of Ruyyaka, Rasagangadhara of Jagannatha, Sahityadarpana of Vishvanatha (1400 AD), Bhaktirasamrtasindhu and Ujjvalanilamani of Rupa Gosvami, and Alangkarakaustubha of Kavikarnapura. Chhandahsutra of Pingala (c 600 AD) is the oldest extant book of Sanskrit prosody. It was followed by Vrttoktiratna of Narayana and Vrttamauktika of Chandrashekhara. Other noteworthy books on prosody are the Shrutavodha of Kalidasa, Jayadevachhanda of Jayadeva (300 AD), Vrttaratnakara of Kedarabhatta (900 AD), Chhandomanjari of Gangadasa (after 1000 AD), Suvrttatilaka of Ksemendra (1100 AD), Chhandonushasana of Hemachandra (1500 AD), and Vrttaratnavali of Ramachandra Chiranjib Bhattacharya (1800 AD). Many fundamental books of Indian philosophy were written in Sanskrit. Metaphysics, morality, wisdom, life after death etc are some of the subjects treated in Indian philosophy which is divided into two groups theism and atheism. These divisions are based on the acceptance and denial of the Veda. The six systems of astika philosophy are the Nyaya of Gautama, Vaishesika of Kanada, Sangkhya of Kapila, Yoga of Patanjali, Mimangsa of Jaimini and the Vedanta of Vadarayana; the nastika systems are Bauddha, Jaina and Charvaka. In Bengal the Navyanyaya and the Vaisnava philosophy (based on Radha-Krsna) were widely studied. Tantra is a different stream of literature. Its various divisions are mantra, jnana, yoga, kriya, charya etc. Dharmashastra and Smrtishastra were written based on religious and social rituals, and dealt with atonement, caste-system, king's duties, and different laws. It is also known as smrti. Dharmashastras composed under the name of Gautama, Vaudhayana and Vashistha are worth mentioning. These books were composed in approximately 600 BC-300 AD. Among the smrti books Manusanghita and Yajnavalkyasmrti are worth mentioning. Among smrti-writers of Bengal Raghunandana's name stands out. In science and other subjects some remarkable books are Vatsyayana's (c 300-400 AD) Kamasutra on sexology; Charaka and Sushrutasanghita on medical science (called as Ayurveda), and Arthashastra on political science by Kautilya or Chanakya. In addition, many books were written on chemistry, botany, astronomy, mathematics, music, learning of theft, cooking, agriculture, elephant breeding, animal breeding etc. Sanskrit study in Bengal It is difficult to ascertain when the study of Sanskrit began in Bengal, but it is certain that its history is very old, as is proved by an inscription found around 350 AD in the Gupta period. A clear picture of the study of Sanskrit in the region can be traced from 700 AD. The writing style of Bengal scholars was known as Gaudi to rhetoricians. Sanskritic studies developed considerably in the Pala and Sena periods. At the beginning of Muslim rule, Sanskrit study faced some checks, but in later periods its development was once more worth mentioning. In particular, the practice of Nyaya that centred around Navadvipa is noteworthy. Bengal was very famous for navyanyaya from 1500-1700 AD. At the time of British rule in 1800-1900 AD Sanskrit study revived again. However, in the last part of the twentieth century, the study of Sanskrit declined in popularity although it is still studied seriously. Pala period (750-1161 AD) Though the Pala kings were Buddhist, during their reign the practice of Sanskrit language and literature is noteworthy. The Venisanghara of Bhattanarayana (800 AD), Mudraraksasa of Vishakhadatta (800/900 AD), Ramacharita of Abhinanda (900 AD), Anargharaghava of Murari (900-1000 AD), Kaulajnananirnaya of Matsyendranatha (first part of 1000 AD), of Noakhali, Chandakaushika of Ksemishvara (c 1000 AD), Bodhimargapanjika and Bodhipradipa of Atisha Dipankara (980-1050 AD), of Vikrampur, Chhandomanjari of Gangadasa (1000-1100 AD), Herukasadhana of Divakarachandra (1000-1100 AD), Chikitsasarasanggraha of Chakrapani Datta (1100 AD), Kichakavadha of Nitivarman (1100 AD), Ramacharita of Sandhyakara Nandi (c 1084-1155 AD), Shabdapradipa and Vrksayurveda of Sureshwara (1100-1200 AD), and Subhasitaratnakosa of Vidyakara (c 1200 AD) are notable works of the period. Sena period (1097-1260) The Sena kings were Hindu. In this period Sanskrit language and literature as well as the texts of the Hindu religion were studied widely. Many people believe that this was the golden era of Sanskrit studies in Bengal. vallalasena (1159-1185) and laksmanasena (1185-1206), were both scholars and fond of literature. In the court of Laksmanasena there were the five celebrated Sanskrit poets, Jayadeva, Umapati, Dhoyi, Govardhana and Sharana. Vallalasena himself wrote Danasagara, Amrtasagara, Pratisthasagara, Acharasagara and Vratasagara. Other books of the period that can be mentioned Vyavaharatilaka, Karmanusthanapaddhati, Prayashcittakarana of Bhavadevabhatta (1100-1200); Naisadhacharita of Shriharsa (1200 AD); Aryashaptashati of Govardhanacharya, Pavanaduta of Dhoyi, Gitagovinda of Jayadeva, saduktikarnamrta of Shridharadasa (1200 AD), Haralata and Pitrdayita of Aniruddhabhatta, a preceptor of Vallalasena; Brahmanasarvasva, Mimangsasarvasva, Vaisnavasarvasva, Shaivasarvasva, Panditasarvasva of Halayudha Mishra, the court-judge of Laksmanasena; Bhasavrtti, Haravali, Ekaksarakosa of Purusottamadeva (1200 AD); Durghatavrtti of Sharanadeva (1200 AD) etc. Kalikapurana (1000-1100), Vrhannandikeshvarapurana (1100-1400) and Devibhagavata were also composed in this period. Muslim Period (1206-1757) In this period Sanskrit was widely studied. Many books were written in every branch of literature and philosophy. The main books were written by the Vaisnava poets. Navadvipa, the sacred place of the Vaisnavas, became the main centre of Sanskrit study. Some notable books of this time are Padyavali, Harinamamrtavyakarana, ujjvalanilamani of Rupa Gosvami; Shrikrsnachaitanyacharitamrta of murari gupta (1500-1600); Vrhadbhagavatamrta, Vaisnavatosini of Sanatan Gosvami (c 1465-1555); Danakelichintamani of Raghunath Das (c 1490-1577); Suktimuktavali of Vishvanath Siddhantapanchanan (1500-1600); Bhramaraduta, Pikaduta of Rudra Nyayavachaspati (1500-1600); Satsandarbha, Harinamamrta of Jiva Gosvami; Chaitanyacharitamrta, Chaitanychandrodaya, Gauraganoddeshadipika, Alangkarakaustubha of Kavikarnapura; Shurjanacharita of Chandrashekhar (1600-1700), Padyamuktavali of Govinda Bhattacharya (1700 AD); Vikhyatavijaya of king Laksmanamanikya (1600-1700); Vaikunthavijaya of Amaramanikya, Apadeshashataka of Chandramanikya; Kautukaratnakara of Raghunath Kavitarkika, the court poet of Laksmanamanikya [these Manikyas are the kings of bhulua, the present Noakhali of Bangladesh]; Anandalatikachampu of krishnanath sarvabhauma and his wife Vaijayanti (1700 AD); Shyamarahasya of Priyangvada (1700 AD); Shrikrsnabhavanamrta of Vishvanath Chakravarti (1700 AD), Padankaduta of Shrikrsna Sarvabhauma (1700-1800) etc. Notable books about Navyasmrti are dayabhaga of jimutavahana (c 1050-1150), Prayashchittaviveka of shulapani (c 1375-1460), Smrtisagara of Kullubhatta (1500 AD), Krtyatattvarnava of Shrinath Acharyachudamani (1500-1600), Astavingsatitattva, Dayabhagatika of raghunandan bhattacharya (1500-1600) etc. These books influenced the Hindu society of that time deeply. Some of those books are studied even now. Important books on philosophy are Anumanapariksa of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma (c 1430-1540), Pratyaksamanididhiti, Anumanadidhiti of Raghunath Shiromani (1500-1600), Nyayarahasya of Ramabhadra Sarvabhauma (1600 AD), Advaitasiddhi, Vedantakalpalatika, Advaitamanjari of madhusudan saraswati (1525-1632), inhabitant of Kotalipara, Gopalganj (the greater Faridpur); Vijnanamrtabhasya of Vijnanabhiksu (1600-1700) etc. On Vyakarana notable books are Mugdhavodha of Vopadeva, Sangksiptasara of Kramadishvara (1500 AD), Katantrapradipa of Pundarikaksa Vidyasagara (1500-1600); on the lexicon Abhidhanatantra of Jatadhara (1500 AD), of Chittagong, Padachandrika of Vrihaspati Rayamukuta (1500 AD), Ekavarnarthasanggraha and Dvirupadhvanisanggraha of Bharat Mallick, Trikandaviveka of Ramanath Vidyavachaspati etc are books worth mentioning. Noteworthy books on rhetoric and prosody are Kavyavilasa and Vrttaratnavali of Chiranjiv Bhattacharya (1700-1800); on tantra the Tantrasara of Krsnananda Agamavagisha (1600 AD), Shaktanandatarangini of Brahmanandagiri (1600 AD), and Shyamarahasya, Satkarmollasa, Tattvanandatarangini of Purnananda Paramahangsa Parivrajaka (1600 AD) are considered important. British Period (1757-1947) In this period, a revival is noticed in Sanskrit studies that accompanied the renaissance in education, society and culture, not only in Bengal but also in the whole of India. Though only a few fundamental works were written, the reading, teaching and translation of Sanskrit works were evident throughout the period. Navadvipa was well-known in history for the study of Navyanyaya. In addition, Bhatpada or Bhattapalli, Guptipara, Burdwan, Triveni, Bali of Howrah, Vishnupur of Bankura in West Bengal and Vikrampur, Kotalipara, Chittagong, and Sylhet in East Bengal were famous for the study of Sanskrit. A centre for the study of Sanskrit was traditionally known as tol. From various Government reports it can be ascertained that there were many tols in Bangla and sufficient students studied in them. Bengalis made major contributions to the study of Navyasmrti. During this period many scholars contributed significantly to smrti. Jagannath Tarkapanchanan (1694-1807), son of Rudra Tarkavagisha, an inhabitant of Triveni compiled a large book of smrti, titled Vivadabhangarnava. Sir william jones (1746-1794) inspired him to write this book. In 1796 Colebroke (1765-1837) translated some parts of this book in English. This became known as Colebroke's Digest. This book was very much useful in solving disputes involving Hindu Law all over India. Vivadarnavasetu is also a famous collection of smrti pieces. Vaneshvara Vidyalangkara (c 1700-1788) compiled this work with the help of ten more Bengali pundits at the request of waren hastings. This book proved to be very useful in solving the disputes according to Hindu Law. It was first translated into persian. Then Halhed (1751-1830) translated it into English from Persian (A code of Gentoo Law, London, 1776). In addition, smrti, Vaneshvara also wrote Chitrachampu, Rahasyamrta, three Khandakavyas and a play titled Chandrabhiseka. Kasichandra Vidyaratna (1854-1917) was a famous scholar of Navyasmrti. He was born in a Brahmin family at Vikrampur, near Dhaka. Uddharachandrika is his most important book. The subject of the book is about the re-entry of a Hindu into society, who has travelled to a western country on ships. He wrote the commentary of twenty Dharmashastras including Manusanghita. Mahamahopadhyaya chandrakanta tarkalankar (1836-1910) of Sherpur (greater Mymensingh) wrote some major books on Navyasmrti. His Udvahachandraloka is well known among scholars of Bengal. Two other books by him are Shuddhichandraloka and Aurdhvadehikachandraloka. In addition to smrti he also wrote books on grammar and literature. The name of his grammar book is Katantrachhandahprakriya. Beginning in the last part of the nineteenth century and continuing to the second part of twentieth century, Haridas Siddhantavagish (1876-1961) contributed significantly to the study of Sanskrit. He was born at Unashiya, a village of Kotalipara in Gopalganj district. Haridas wrote Smrtichintamani. Navyasmrti includes a Bangla translation containing directions for following all kinds of rules and regulations of the Hindus governing conduct from birth to death. Besides smrti he had masterd kavya and grammar. He had also translated many Sanskrit books and provided them with his own commentaries. In the study of Navyanyaya and Navyasmrti some other works worth mentioning are Krsnakanta Vidayavagisha (1800 AD), Golokanath Nyayaratna (1806-1855), Harinath Tarkasiddhanta (1829-1889), Mahamahopadhyaya Krsnanath Nyayapanchanan (1833-1911), Mahamahopadhyaya Kamakhyanath Tarkavagisha (1843-1936), the famous Naiyayika of Navadvip, Kamalakrsna Smrtitirtha of Battapalli etc. Nyayaratnavali, Nyayapatri, Nyayaratnaprakashika, Tarkamrtatarangini of Krsnakanta; Nyayaprakasha, Vedantaparibhasatika, Arthasanggraha, Tattvakaumudi of Krsnanath; Sangkhyadipani, Nyayatattvavodhini, Nyayasaptapadarthi, Nyayakusumanjalitika of Kamakhyanath; Danakriyakaumudi, Krtyaratnakara, Rajadharmakaustubha (edited by Kamalakrsna) have had a remarkable influence on the study of Nyaya and Smrti. During colonial rule, many native kings and zamindars made significant contributions to the study of Sanskrit. Among them were krishnachandra roy, the king of Nadia; Kirtichand and Tilakchand, the kings of Burdwan; Ramakanta and Bhavani, the king and queen of Natore respectively; Gopal Singh, the Malla king of Vishnupur; Rajavallabh Sen of Rajanagar, Dhaka etc. Krishnachandra Roy donated money for the study of Sanskrit in different parts of Bengal. The accounts of Sanskrit study in tols, chatuspathis and colleges of Bengal are recorded in various Government reports of that time. Among these, William Adam's Report (1835-1838) and Reverend James Long's Report (1868) are worth mentioning. A clear picture of the study of Sanskrit in Bengal can be deduced from these reports. The study of Sanskrit by Europeans During the Company and British rule in India, foreigners felt that to run business and administration knowledge about native language and literature was very essential. For this reason and to satisfy the eagerness of many about oriental language and literature, a new era started in the field of Sanskrit studies. In this area the contribution made by some European administrators, scholars and linguists is very significant. Among them are Sir William Jones, Sir charles wilkins (1749/50-1836), henry thomas colebrooke, horace hayman wilson (1786-1860) and James Princep (1799-1840). Through research, translation, collection and editing of manuscripts, and archaeological surveys they performed an important role in preaching and spreading Sanskrit and introducing Sanskrit to the world. William Jones came to Kolkata as a judge of Supreme Court in 1783. Expert in many languages, Jones noted for the first time that the Sanskrit language had a unique relation with Greek and Latin and that all these languages originated from one language. Under his leadership in 1784 the asiatic society was established in Kolkata for research on Oriental language, history and culture. Through Asiatic Researches, the journal of this institution, he attracted the attention of the western world to the education, culture, history, philosophy etc of India. In 1789 he published Abhijnanashakuntalam, a Sanskrit drama by Kalidasa, from Kolkata, titling it Fatal Ring. Colebrooke came to India as a writer of the Bengal service in 1783. In 1786, at the time of his employment as a collector at Trihut, he was attracted to the study of Hindu religion and culture and begun to learn Sanskrit. After Jones, Colebrooke's contribution to Sanskrit study must be mentioned. He read Vedic and Puranic literature and Sanskrit grammar carefully. He wrote Grammar of the Sanskrit Language and compiled the Sanskrit Dictionary. By reading his book The Translation of Two Treaties on the Hindu Law of Inheritance, foreigners were able to get a clear idea about Hindu Law. He played an important role in the institutionalisation study of Sanskrit and its spread as president of the Asiatic society and as Professor of Hindu Law and Sanskrit in fort william college. Horace Hayman Wilson came to India in 1808 as a physician of the east india company. Within a short period he acquired expertise in Sanskrit language. In 1813 he translated Kalidasa's Meghadutam in English. The two great achievements of Wilson were the composition of Sanskrit English Dictionary and the discovery of the Sanskrit historical kavya Rajatarangini. On the basis of Rajatarngini he made a chronological history of Indian kings. He tried to glean historical information on the basis of his research of Puranic literature. At that time the 'Boden Chair' was created at Oxford University. Wilson was appointed to this position and left India. Another of his achievements is the translation of the Rgveda into English. After Wilson, Princep, the auditor of the Kolkata mint, became the Secretary of the Asiatic Society. Wilson attracted him to oriental studies. Princep gave special importance to the study of history and archaeology. Particularly through his research on ancient coins and scripts, information about many kings and dynasties came to the light. In this respect it can be said that information about Emperor Kanishka came from a coin. Through the deciphering of the Allahabad inscription, essential information about the Maurya and Gupta dynasty were deduced. The work of J Stevenson, WH Mill, Cuningham and Wilson as well as that of Princep is worth mentioning. In the spread of Sanskrit studies, the name of Wilkins is significant for a number of reasons. He came to India in 1770 as a writer of East India Company. He earned proficiency in Persian, Bangla and Sanskrit and became an expert in making types of these languages. He established a printing press at Hughli and made Bangla and Sanskrit types. So he is called the founding father of printing in Bengal. He translated the Sanskrit Hitopadesha into Bangla and deciphered some copper and stone inscriptions composed in Sanskrit. In 1785 the Bhagavadgita translated by him was printed in England. He published many valuable essays in Asiatic Researches. Among them are: A Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, Radicals of the Sanskrit Language, Compilation of Jones Manuscripts etc. He also translated some portions of Manusanghita. Fort William College Sanskrit study got institutional shape through the foundation of fort william college (1800). Here the teaching of Sanskrit got special importance. Within a short period Sanskrit scholars like Colebrooke wrote Sanskrit grammars in English. Mugdhavodha, Siddhantakaumudi, Amarakosa and Sanskrit-English Dictionary of Wilson were published. Mitaksara, Dayabbaga, Manusanghita, Dattakachandrika, Dayakramasanggraha and other texts relating to native law were also published. In addition to grammar and law texts literary works, eg Nitishataka, Shrngarashataka, Vairagyashataka, Ramayana, Gitagovinda, Meghaduta, Shishupalavadha, Kiratarjuniya, Hitopadesha, Dashakumaracharita, Nalodaya etc were also published. Sanskrit College Governor General Hastings founded sanskrit college in 1824. The contribution of this college to the study of Sanskrit is remarkable. Pundit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar was appointed Principal of the college in 1851. After taking charge, he made radical changes in teaching methods. While in the past only descendants of Brahmin and Vaidya clan could get an education here, through the efforts of Vidyasagar descendants of the Kayastha family and children of respectable Hindu families got educational opportunities here. Vidyasagar worked hard to popularise Bangla and Sanskrit education. He wrote Sanskrit primers as well as books for juvenile readers in Bangla. His Sanskrit work Rjupatha proved to be very helpful for students. He composed Upakramanika and Vyakaranakaumudi for easy access to the complex system of Sanskrit grammar. He edited many famous Sanskrit books, eg Raghuvangsha, Kumarasambhava, Meghaduta, Sarvadarshanasanggraha, Uttararamacharita, Kadambari, Harsacharita, Abhijnanashakuntala etc. He made Sanskrit books attractive to the public through lucid Bangla translations. He was the first to write the history of Sanskrit literature in Bangla. In 1877 Mahesh Chandra Nyayaratna became the Principal of Sanskrit College. He reformed the tol and chatuspathi and introduced the Upadhi examination in Sanskrit. In 1879 the first Upadhi examination was held in Sanskrit College. Of course this exam began at purvavanga saraswat samaj in Dhaka a year earlier. Excluding the previous Upadhi (title) Vidyavinoda, which has continued since 1884, the provision of conferring the Tirtha Upadhi (eg Kavyatirtha, Vyakaranatirtha etc) was adopted by the college. Many teachers and students of Sanskrit College have also made significant contributions to Sanskrit studies. Among them noteworthy are jaygopal tarkalankar (1772-1845), Bharat Chandra Shiromani, Premchandra Tarkavagish (1805-1867), Jaynarayan Tarkapanchanan (1806-1872), Taranath Tarkavachaspati (1811-1885), madanmohan tarkalankar (1817-1858), and Pramathanath Tarkabhusan (1865-1944). Jaygopal Tarkaratna was born in Bajarpur, Jessore. He composed a volume of verses on Krishna called Shrivilvamangala. There are 119 verses in it with Bangla translation in payara metre. In Shiksasara, another book by him, he included Gurudaksina, Chanakyashloka and Arya of Shubhankara. He was a reviewer of Mahabharata, published from the Asiatic Society in 1837. Bharat Chandra Shiromani, a famous smarta and Professor of Sanskrit College, was an extraordinary scholar. His major works are Dayabhaga, Dattakamimangsa, Dattakachandrika, Smrtichandrika, Chaturvargachintamani etc. At first he was a Pundit of the Law Examination Committee and then he became judge Pundit of Burdwan. Professor Premchandra Tarkavagish was adept in Sanskrit philosophy and literature. He wrote Sanskrit verse with consummate skill. Among his written and edited books, mention can be made of the annotations to Raghuvangsha, Abhijnanashakuntala, Kavyadarsha Raghavapandaviya, Anargharaghava, Naisadhacharita, Uttararamacharita, Kumarasambhava etc. The great Naiyayika, Jaynarayan Tarkapanchanan, was a teacher of Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and Mahesh Chandra Nyayaratna. He wrote Sangkaravijaya and Padarthatattvasara. Other major books by him are Atmatattvaviveka, Kanadasutravrtti, Sarvadarshanasanggraha, Nyayadarshana, Bhairavapanchashika, Tarakeshastava etc. Taranath Tarkavachaspati taught grammar in Sanskrit College. He edited many Sanskrit books, providing annotations and explanations for them, eg on grammar Siddhantakaumudi, Vaiyakaranabhusanasara; on literature Kadambari, Dashakumaracharita and Hitopadesha; on poetry Kiratarjuniya, Shishupalavadha, and Kumarasambhava; on drama Malavikagnimitra, Mahaviracharita, Mudraraksasa, Ratnavali, Venisanghara etc. He also wrote some basic works such as Shabdartharatna, Gayamahatmya, Tuladanapaddhati etc. His unique achievement was the compilation of two dictionaries Shabdastomamahanidhi and Vachaspatyabhidhana. He established a Free Sanskrit College in his residence and gave many students a sound education in the language. Madanmohan Tarkalankar, of Vilvagram, Nadia, edited with annotations Atmatattvaviveka, Kavikalpadruma, Khandanakhandakhadya, Vasavadatta, Kadambari, Dashakumaracharita, Meghaduta etc. Pramathanath Tarkabhusan was a teacher of Smritishastra in Sanskrit College. He was born at Bhatpara under the district of 24-Parganas. Important books translated, explained and edited by him are Vishuddhanandacharita, Kokiladuta, Vijayaprakasha, Rasarasodaya, Purvamimangsartha Sanggrhita Tika etc. Some renowned persons Raja rammohun roy (1772-1833), a pioneer of the Bengal renaissance, was well-versed in Sanskrit. He had extensive religious discussions with Utsavananda Vidyavagish and Subrahmanya Shastri in Sanskrit. Later, these discussions were published in book form. Gayatryah Paramopasanavidhanam and Atmanatmaviveka are two Sanskrit books written by him. He wrote many works based on the Vedanta and the Upanisad. Books written and edited by him are Vedantagrantha, Vedantasara, Ishopanisat, Talavakaropanisat, Bhattacharyer Sahit Vichar, Kathopanisat, Mandukyopanisat, Vajrasuci, the translation of Gita in verse etc. In Brahmasamaj gatherings he often was in charge of the recitation of the Vedas. Raja radhakanta deb (1784-1867) spent a lot of money to popularize Sanskrit. Through his efforts, the Sanskrit dictionary Shabdakalpadruma was published for several years. Because of this book it has become easy to learn about Indian religion, philosophy and culture. He built many chatuspathis for the study of Sanskrit. Maharshi debendranath tagore (1817-1905) was an expert in Sanskrit. He donated money to many teachers and students to extending the study of Sanskrit. He was eager to preach the Vedas and the Upanisad. After reading a verse of the Ishopanisad his life-style was transformed. He introduced important verses of Upanisad in Brahmadharma, a volume composed skilfully to introduce Sanskrit to his family members. dwijendranath tagore (1840-1926), the oldest son of the Maharshi, translated Meghaduta when he was quite young. He wrote a book titled Gitapatha based on the Gita. satyendranath tagore (1842-1923) translated the Gita and Meghaduta. He took keen interest in Buddhist Sanskrit literature. jyotirindranath tagore (1849-1925) also mastered Sanskrit scholarship. He translated seventeen Sanskrit plays very successfully. rabindranath tagore's (1861-1941) expertise in Sanskrit is wellknown. He studied the Vedas, Upanisad, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Manusanghita and the works of Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Vanabhatta carefully. He made the Astadhyayi of Panini a compulsory text for teachers and students of Bangla. He himself wrote Sangskrtapathah to teach Sanskrit in Ashrama-schools. He composed the Sanskrit motto of Vishwa-Bharati: 'atheyang Vishvabharati, yatra vishvang bhavatyekanidam'. When he was conferred the DLit degree by Oxford University, he delivered his speech in Sanskrit. On 20 September 1931 Sanskrit College honoured him with the title Kavi Sarvabhauma. swami vivekananda (1863-1902) had shown his zeal in preaching Vedanta and in propagating Sanskrit. He acquired Mugdhavodha and the Astadhyayi. He composed many Sanskrit stotra (verses) of which a large portion was written in praise of Ramakrishna Paramahamsadeva. He also wrote many letters in Sanskrit. bhudev mukhopadhyay (1827-1894) though proficient in English, was dedicated to popularising Sanskrit. The 'Vishwanath Trust Fund' and 'Vishwanath Chatuspathi' are maintained through his donation. Bhudev was considered the spiritual guide of Bankimchandra (1838-1894) and Hemachandra (1838-1903). Bhudev termed the governing deity of the motherland as mother in his 'Adhibharati'. In one of his stotra the seed of the famous song Vande mataram, composed by Bankimchandra, exists. Bankimchandra's expertise in Sanskrit is well-known and can be seen in his Krsnacharitra, Dharmatattva, and in his translation of the Gita. romesh chunder dutt (1848-1909) studied Sanskrit carefully. He translated the Rgveda into Bangla and edited Hindushastra. The noted physicist ramendrasundar trivedi (1864-1919) studied Vedic literature and wrote Yajnakatha. In addition, he translated Aitareyabrahmana into Bengali. The poet nabinchandra sen (1847-1909) translated Chandi and Gita into verse. Based on the Sanskrit Mahabharata he composed three kavyas: Raivataka, Kuruksetra and Prabhasa. Nabinchandra Das translated Sanskrit epics into Bangla verse. For this reason the chattal dharmamandali sabha honoured him with the title of Vidyapati. Archaeologist rajendralal mitra (1822-1891) had profound knowledge of Sanskrit. He edited many Sanskrit books, eg Chaitanyachandrodaya, Taittiriya Brahmana, Taittiriya Aranyaka, Agnipurana, Gopathabrahmana etc. kaliprasanna singh's (1840-1870) unique achievement was to translate the Mahabharata into Bangla. He also translated the Gita, Vikramorvashiya and Malatimadhava. He translated and produced the drama Venisanghara on his Vidyotsahini Mancha. In Bangladesh the formal study of Sanskrit was concentrated in Dhaka University. In this regard the name of haraprasad sastri (1853-1931) must be mentioned first. He discovered and collected many manuscripts and edited them. Publications of note edited by him from Kolkata Asiatic Society are Vrhaddharmapurana, Chittavishuddhiprakarana, Vallalacharita of Anandabhatta, Ramacharita of Sandhyakar Nandi, Chatuhshatika of Aryadeva, Saundarananda of Ashvaghosa etc. Prof. sushil kumar de (1890-1968) also made significant contributions to Sanskrit study. Though Dr muhammad shahidullah (1885-1969) and Dr muhammad abdul hai (1919-1969) were Professors of Bengali, they encouraged the study of Sanskrit in Dhaka University. Although the study of Sanskrit began to decline in the region during the Pakistan period and then in independent Bangladesh, Professor Rabindranath Ghosh Thakur played a remarkable role in cultivating the language in this periods. He wrote many Sanskrit text books for study in school and college. For the university level he edited Bhasa's Svapnavasavadatta, and published it with a Bangla translation, from Dhaka University (1974). Another important book that he wrote was Sangskrta Varnamalar Itihas. It was published from bangla academy (1985). Many manuscripts written in Sanskrit on various subjects are preserved in different institutional and personal libraries of the country including Dhaka University Library. In the 1920s and 30s of the last century Sushil Kumar De, radhagovinda basak (1885-1982) and Rajendra Chandra Hazra edited some manuscripts, eg Kichakavadha (1929), Padyavali (1934), Krsnakarnamrta (1938) and Ghatakarparakavya. After a long time in the nineteen nineties teachers and researchers have resumed work on a few manuscripts, eg Apadeshashataka (1993), Kautukaratnakara (1998), Apadeshiyashatashlokamalika (1998), Kirtishataka etc. The first two of these have been published in the book form with Bangla translations and the third one has been published as an article. At present some researchers are continuing to research on Sanskrit manuscripts in the regions. A project for collecting and developing manuscripts was conducted from 1984-1988 under the supervision of Dhaka University Library. Then thousands of manuscripts were collected from different collections of the country and their microfilms, accompanied by short descriptions, were preserved in the library. In addition, thousands of manuscripts from the library's own collection have also been identified briefly. All these manuscripts have been compiled in three volumes. [Narayan Chandra Biswas] Bibliography Dinesh Chandra Sen, Vangabhasa O Sahitya (before British influence), 4th ed, Kolkata, 1921; Suresh Chandra Bandyopadhyay, Sangskrta Sahitye Banalir Dan, Kolkata, 1962; Dhyanesh Narayan Chakravarty, Bharatiya Sangskrtir Uttaradhikar, Kolkata, 1986; Yoganath Mukhopadhyay, Itihas Abhidhan (Bharat), Kolkata, 3rd ed, 1990; Sirajul Islam ed, Bangladesher Itihas (1704-1971), 3rd Vol, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1st pub, 1993. september 25, 2008 post
159 What happens after Death? Author: M.J.Stephey as reported in TIME September 18,2008 People commonly perceive death as being a moment — you're either dead or you're alive. And that's a social definition we have. But the clinical definition we use is when the heart stops beating, the lungs stop working, and as a consequence the brain itself stops working. When doctors shine a light into someone's pupil, it's to demonstrate that there is no reflex present. The eye reflex is mediated by the brain stem, and that's the area that keeps us alive; if that doesn't work, then that means that the brain itself isn't working. At that point, I'll call a nurse into the room so I can certify that this patient is dead. Fifty years ago, people couldn't survive after that. How is technology challenging the perception that death is a moment? Nowadays, we have technology that's improved so that we can bring people back to life. In fact, there are drugs being developed right now — who knows if they'll ever make it to the market — that may actually slow down the process of brain-cell injury and death. Imagine you fast-forward to 10 years down the line; and you've given a patient, whose heart has just stopped, this amazing drug; and actually what it does is, it slows everything down so that the things that would've happened over an hour, now happen over two days. As medicine progresses, we will end up with lots and lots of ethical questions. But what is happening to the individual at that time? What's really going on? Because there is a lack of blood flow, the cells go into a kind of a frenzy to keep themselves alive. And within about 5 min. or so they start to damage or change. After an hour or so the damage is so great that even if we restart the heart again and pump blood, the person can no longer be viable, because the cells have just been changed too much. And then the cells continue to change so that within a couple of days the body actually decomposes. So it's not a moment; it's a process that actually begins when the heart stops and culminates in the complete loss of the body, the decompositions of all the cells. However, ultimately what matters is, What's going on to a person's mind? What happens to the human mind and consciousness during death? Does that cease immediately as soon as the heart stops? Does it cease activity within the first 2 sec., the first 2 min.? Because we know that cells are continuously changing at that time. Does it stop after 10 min., after half an hour, after an hour? And at this point we don't know. A fellow at New York City's Weill Cornell Medical Center, Dr. Sam Parnia is one of the world's leading experts on the scientific study of death. Last week Parnia and his colleagues at the Human Consciousness Project announced their first major undertaking: a 3-year exploration of the biology behind "out-of-body" experiences. The study, known as AWARE (AWAreness during REsuscitation), involves the collaboration of 25 major medical centers through Europe, Canada and the U.S. and will examine some 1,500 survivors of cardiac arrest. TIME spoke with Parnia about the project's origins, its skeptics and the difference between the mind and the brain. september 24, 2009 post
161 Broccoli Compounds <div> <div> <div> <div>Author:</div> BBC Report September 13,2008 </div> </div> </div> US scientists found that sulforapane increases the activity of the NRF2 gene in human lung cells which protects cells from damage caused by toxins. The same broccoli compound was recently found to be protective against damage to blood vessels caused by diabetes. Brassica vegetables such as broccoli have also been linked to a lower risk of heart attacks and strokes. Cell pollutants In the latest study, a team from John Hopkins School of Medicine found significantly lower activity of the NRF2 gene in smokers with advanced COPD. september 13, 2009 post
163 Vitamin B12 for Vegetarian Author:amaye team "Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common problem among elderly people in the UK and has been linked to declining memory and dementia." Vitamin B12 can be gotten from Milk. Dr Susanne Sorensen, from the Alzheimer's Society said: "Brain shrinkage is usually associated with the development of dementia. The Oxford study looked at a group of people between 61 and 87, splitting it into thirds depending on the participants' vitamin B12 levels. Older people with lower than average vitamin B12 levels were more than six times more likely to experience brain shrinkage, researchers concluded. august 31, 2009 post
166 Lotus- the sacred symbol and the science Author: Adapted from Peter Forbes article in Scientific American The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is a radiantly graceful aquatic perennial and has played an enormous role in the religions and cultures of India, Mynamar, China and Japan. Yogiis use this symbol almost everyday. The lotus is venerated because of its exceptional purity.It grows in muddy water,but its leaves,when they emerge, stand metres above the water and are seemingly never dirty.Drops of water on a lotus leaf have an unearthly sparkle, and rainwater washes dirt from that leaf more readily than from any other plant. It is this last property that drew Barthlott’s attention. In the 1970s he became excited by the possibilities of the scanning electron microscope, which had become commercially available in 1965 and offered vivid images down to the nanometer realm. At that scale of magnification, specks of dirt can ruin the picture, and so the samples have to be cleaned. But Barthlott noticed that some plants never seemed to need washing, and the prince of these was the lotus. Barthlott realized that the effect is caused by the combination of two features of the leaf surface: its waxiness and the microscopic bumps (a few microns in size) that cover it. He knew from basic physics that the waxiness alone should make the leaves hydrophobic, or water-hating. On such a material, drops of water sit up high to minimize their area of contact with the material. Water on a more hydrophilic, or water-loving, substance spreads across it to maximize the contact area. For a hydrophilic surface, the contact angle (where the droplet’s surface meets the material) is less than 30 degrees; a hydrophobic surface has a contact angle greater than 90 degrees. In addition, he understood that the innumerable bumps take things a step further and cause the lotus surface to be superhydrophobic—the contact angle exceeds 150 degrees, and water on it forms nearly spherical droplets with very little surface contact that roll across it as easily as ball bearings would. The water sits on top of the bumps like a person lying on a bed of nails. Air trapped between the water and the leaf surface in the spaces around the bumps increases the contact angle, an effect that is described by the Cassie-Baxter equation, named after A.B.D. Cassie and S. Baxter, who first developed it in the 1940s. Dirt, Barthlott saw, similarly touches only the peaks of the lotus leaf’s bumps. Raindrops easily wet the dirt and roll it off the leaf. This discovery that microscopic bumps enhance cleanliness is wonderfully paradoxical. I learned at my mother’s apron that “nooks and crannies harbor dirt”—capturing the conventional folk wisdom that if you want to keep things clean, keep them smooth. But contemplation of the lotus showed that this homily is not entirely true. First and foremost a botanist, Barthlott initially did not see commercial possibilities in his observation of how the minuscule bumps keep lotus leaves spotless. In the 1980s, though, he realized that if rough, waxy surfaces could be synthesized, an artificial lotus effect could have many applications. He later patented the idea of constructing surfaces with microscopic raised areas to make them self-cleaning and registered Lotus Effect as a trademark Engineering a superhydrophobic surface on an object by using the lotus effect was not easy—the nature of a hydrophobic material is to repel, but this stuff that repels everything has to be made to stick to the object itself. Nevertheless, by the early 1990s Barthlott had created the “honey spoon”: a spoon with a homemade microscopically rough silicone surface that allows honey to roll off, leaving none behind. This product finally convinced some large chemical companies that the technique was viable, and their research muscle was soon finding more ways to exploit the effect. The leading application so far is StoLotusan facade paint for buildings, introduced in 1999 by the German multinational Sto AG and a huge success. “Lotus Effect” is now a household name in Germany; last October the journal Wirtschafts­woche named it as one of the 50 most significant German inventions of recent years. Because many untested claims have been made to support nanotechnology products, standards institutions are beginning to set stringent tests for self-cleaning clothing that are based on these innovations. In October 2005 the German Hohenstein Research Institute, which offers tests and certifications to trade and industry around the world, announced that NanoSphere textiles were the first of such fabrics to pass a whole range of tests, including those examining water repellency and the ability of the fabric to maintain its performance after ordinary wash cycles and other wear and tear. In a test of my own, samples of NanoSphere showed an impressive ability to shrug off oily tomato sauces, coffee and red wine stains—some of the worst of the usual suspects. Easy-clean clothes are becoming widely available, but buyers of marquees, awnings and sails are expected to constitute the biggest market (in terms of money spent) for lotus effect finishes. No one really wants to have to clean these large outside structures. Superwettability The exploration of the lotus effect began as an attempt to understand the self-cleaning powers of one type of surface—waxy ones with microscopic or even nanoscale structures. This research has now broadened into an entire new science of wettability, self-cleaning and disinfection. Researchers realized that there might be many ways to make superhydrophobic surfaces and that superhydrophobicity’s reverse—superhydrophilicity—might also be interesting. The leading player in superhydrophilicity is the mineral titanium dioxide, or titania. Titania’s journey to stardom began more than four decades ago with a property that has nothing to do with wettability. In 1967 Akira Fujishima, then a graduate student at the University of Tokyo, discovered that when exposed to ultraviolet light, titania could split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The splitting of water powered by light, or photolysis, has long been something of a holy grail because if it could be made to work efficiently, it could generate hydrogen cheaply enough to make that gas a viable, carbon-free substitute for fossil fuels. Fujishima and other researchers pursued the idea vigorously, but eventually they realized that achieving a commercial yield was a very distant prospect. The studies did reveal that thin films of titania (in the range of nanometers to microns thick) work more efficiently than do larger particles. And, in 1990, after Fujishima teamed up with Kazuhito Hashimoto of the University of Tokyo and Toshiya Watanabe of the sanitary equipment manufacturer TOTO, he and his colleagues discovered that nanoscale thin films of titania activated by ultraviolet light have a photocatalytic effect, breaking down organic compounds—including those in the cell walls of bacteria—to carbon dioxide and water. Titania is photocatalytic because it is a semiconductor, meaning that a moderate amount of energy is needed to lift an electron from the mineral’s so-called valence band of filled energy levels across what is known as a band gap (composed of forbidden energy levels) into the empty “conduction band,” where electrons can flow and carry a current. In titania’s case, a photon of ultraviolet light with a wavelength of about 388 nanometers can do the trick, and in the process it produces two mobile charges: the electron that it hoists to the conduction band as well as the hole that is left behind in the valence band, which behaves much like a positively charged particle. While these two charges are on the loose, they can interact with water and oxygen at the surface of the titania, producing superoxide radical anions (O2–) and hydroxyl radicals (OH)—highly reactive chemical species that can then convert organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water. In the mid-1990s the three Japanese researchers made another crucial discovery about titania when they prepared a thin film from an aqueous suspension of titania particles and annealed it at 500 degrees Celsius. After the scientists exposed the resulting transparent coating to ultraviolet light, it had the extraordinary property of complete wettability—a contact angle of zero degrees—for both oil and water. The ultraviolet light had removed some of the oxygen atoms from the surface of the titania, resulting in a patchwork of nanoscale domains where hydroxyl groups became adsorbed, which produced the superhydrophilicity. The areas not in those domains were responsible for the great affinity for oil. The effect remained for several days after the ultraviolet exposure, but the titania slowly reverted to its original state the longer it was kept in the dark. Although it is the very opposite of the lotus leaf’s repulsion of water, titania’s superhydrophilicity turns out also to be good for self-cleaning: the water tends to spread across the whole surface, forming a sheet that can carry away dirt as it flows. The surface also resists fogging, because condensing water spreads out instead of becoming the thousands of tiny droplets that constitute a fog. The photocatalytic action of titania adds deodorizing and disinfection to the self-cleaning ability of coated items by breaking down organics and killing bacteria. The titania-coating industry is now burgeoning. TOTO, for instance, produces a range of photocatalytic self-cleaning products, such as outdoor ceramic tiles, and it licenses the technology worldwide. Because nanocoatings of titania are transparent, treated window glass was an obvious development. In 2001 Activ Glass, developed by Pilkington, the largest glass manufacturer in the U.K., became the first to hit the market. In general, glass is formed at about 1,600 degrees C on a bed of molten tin. To make Activ Glass, titanium tetrachloride vapor is passed over the glass at a later cooling stage, depositing a layer of titania finer than 20 nanometers thick. Activ Glass is fast becoming the glass of choice for conservatory roofs and vehicles’ side mirrors in the U.K. Unfortunately, ordinary window glass blocks the ultraviolet wavelengths that drive titania’s photocatalytic activity, so titania nanolayers are less useful indoors than out. The answer is to “dope” the titania with other substances, just as silicon and other semiconductors are doped for electronics. Doping can decrease the material’s band gap, which means that the somewhat longer wavelengths of indoor lighting can activate photocatalysis. In 1985 Shinri Sato of Hokkaido University in Japan serendipitously discovered the benefit of doping titania with nitrogen. Silver can also be used to dope the titania. Only in recent years, however, have these approaches been translated into commercial processes. The antibacterial and deodorizing properties of doped titania are expected to have wide applications in kitchens and bathrooms. Titania is also being used in self-cleaning textiles and offers the advantage of removing odors. Various techniques have been devised to attach it to fabrics, including via direct chemical bonds. .... Staying Dry Underwater It is one of the pleasant surprises of the 21st century that the radiance of the lotus is penetrating into previously unknown nooks and crannies, as well as beyond self-cleaning applications. Barthlott, who saw the potential in a drop of water on a lotus leaf, now sees almost limitless vistas. But he warns those who want to translate from nature to technology that they are likely to encounter great skepticism, as he did. “Do trust your own eyes and not the textbooks, and if your observation is repeatedly confirmed, publish it,” he advises. “But take a deep breath—expect rejections of your manuscript.” He is, not surprisingly, a passionate advocate for biodiversity, pointing out that many other plants and animals may have useful properties—possibly including species unknown to science and in danger of extinction. His current research involves superhydrophobicity underwater. After studying how plants such as the water lettuce Pistia and the floating fern Salvinia trap air on their leaf surfaces, Barthlott created fabrics that stay dry underwater for four days. An unwettable swimsuit is in prospect. The big prize would be to reduce the drag on ships’ hulls. The lotus collects no dirt, but it is garnering an impressive string of patents. Note: This story was originally published with the title, "Self-Cleaning Materials". august 31, 2009 post
170 Dozens Graduate at Yoga Academy in Singapore A dozen students successfully completed the certificate course in Yoga &amp; Intuitional Science. Each student completed five modules viz., Yoga History, Yoga Science, Yoga Philosophy, Yoga Life Style and Teaching Methodology &amp; Professional Ethics. Some of those have enrolled themselves in the Diploma Course in Yoga Science at the Academy whicamyogaacademyh will concentrate on five more modules. The Certificates were awarded by the Faculty of Yoga and Intuitional Science of Ananda Marga Gurukula. In May 2009, another seven students completed the Diploma Course in Yoga Science. For more information visit august 31, 2009 post
172 Report on 3rd International Microvita Seminar Amidst the natural beauty of flowing river,sunshine and green lawns, the historic 3rd annual International seminar was held at an excellent facility called Wannsee Forum in Berlin on May2,3,4th,2008 and attended by 36 participants from 16 countries. Among the topics discussed at length were: Microvita (MV) and Inferences(tanmatras); String Theory; MV and elementary particles;Superluminal Microvita Model of Photons and Electrons;MV in biological life; Hidden History of the Quantum World; Musical Theory &amp; Practice and Microvita in the life of a sadhaka. July 6, 2009 post
174 Garlic as Brain Toxin Author: Dr. Robert C. Beck Notes: This article is on the negative effcets of garlic. While everyone has heard of the medicinal effects of garlic, few know as to how garlic effects the brain negatively and should be avaoided as a regular food item. Yogiis have known this for thousands of years and that is why they have called it a tamasika (static) food. June 30, 2009 post
178 Scientists Probe Meditation BBC Report by Naomi Law Scientists are beginning to uncover evidence that meditation has a tangible effect on the brain. Sceptics argue that it is not a practical way to try to deal with the stresses of modern life. But the long years when adherents were unable to point to hard science to support their belief in the technique may finally be coming to an end. When Carol Cattley's husband died it triggered a relapse of the depression which had not plagued her since she was a teenager. "I instantly felt as if I wanted to die," she said. "I couldn't think of what else to do." Carol sought medical help and managed to control her depression with a combination of medication and a psychological treatment called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. However, she believes that a new, increasingly popular course called Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) - which primarily consists of meditation - brought about her full recovery. It is currently available in every county across the UK, and can be prescribed on the NHS. One of the pioneers of MBCT is Professor Mark Williams, from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oxford. He helps to lead group courses which take place over a period of eight weeks. He describes the approach as 80% meditation, 20% cognitive therapy. New perspective He said: "It teaches a way of looking at problems, observing them clearly but not necessarily trying to fix them or solve them. "It suggests to people that they begin to see all their thoughts as just thoughts, whether they are positive, negative or neutral." MBCT is recommended for people who are not currently depressed, but who have had three or more bouts of depression in their lives. Trials suggest that the course reduces the likelihood of another attack of depression by over 50%. Professor Williams believes that more research is still needed. He said: "It is becoming enormously popular quite quickly and in many ways we now need to collect the evidence to check that it really is being effective." However, in the meantime, meditation is being taken seriously as a means of tackling difficult and very modern challenges. Scientists are beginning to investigate how else meditation could be used, particularly for those at risk of suicide and people struggling with the effects of substance abuse. What is meditation? Meditation is difficult to define because it has so many different forms. By meditating, you can become happier, you can concentrate more effectively and you can change your brain in ways that support that Dr Richard Davidson Broadly, it can be described as a mental practice in which you focus your attention on a particular subject or object. It has historically been associated with religion, but it can also be secular, and exactly what you focus your attention on is largely a matter of personal choice. It may be a mantra (repeated word or phrase), breathing patterns, or simply an awareness of being alive. Some of the more common forms of meditative practices include Buddhist Meditation, Mindfulness Meditation, Transcendental Meditation, and Zen Meditation. The claims made for meditation range from increasing immunity, improving asthma and increasing fertility through to reducing the effects of aging. Limited research Research into the health claims made for meditation has limitations and few conclusions can be reached, partly because meditation is rarely isolated - it is often practised alongside other lifestyle changes such as diet, or exercise, or as part of group therapy. So should we dismiss it as quackery? Studies from the field of neuroscience suggest not. It is a new area of research, but indications are intriguing and suggest that meditation may have a measurable impact on the brain. In Boston, Massachusetts, Dr Sara Lazar has used a technique called MRI scanning to analyse the brains of people who have been meditating for several years. She compared the brains of these experienced practitioners with people who had never meditated and found that there were differences in the thickness of certain areas of the brain's cortex, including areas involved in the processing of emotion. She is continuing research, but she believes that meditation had caused the brain to change physical shape. Buddhist monks In Madison, Wisconsin, Dr Richard Davidson has been carrying out studies on Buddhist monks for several years. His personal belief is that "by meditating, you can become happier, you can concentrate more effectively and you can change your brain in ways that support that." In one study he observed the brains of a group of office workers before and after they undertook a course of meditation combined with stress reduction techniques. At the end of the course the participants' brains seemed to have altered in the way they functioned. They showed greater activity in the left-hand side - a characteristic which Davidson has previously linked to happiness and enthusiasm. This idea that meditation could improve the wellbeing of everyone, even those not struggling with mental illness, is something that is exciting researchers. Professor Williams believes it has huge potential. "It involves dealing with expectations, with constantly judging ourselves - feeling we're not good enough," he said. "And, that is something which is so widespread in our communities. "All of these things are just thoughts. And, they will come up in meditation and learning to recognize what they are as thoughts, and let them go, can be enormously empowering for anybody." There is, of course, a distinct possibility that this research will come to nothing and that interest in meditation will turn out to be a passing fad, but for now this ancient discipline is being taken seriously by scientists as a tool with potential to make each one of us happier and more content. Alternative Therapies: Meditation will be broadcast on Monday 31 March 2008 at 2100 GMT on BBC Two. april 30, 2009 post
180 International Yoga Day Celebrations in Nepal Under the leadership of Acharya Onkareshvarananda Avadhuta, International Yoga Day was celebrated in Nepal. On 20th February,2008 students of Ananda Marga School and Children Home gave yoga asanas demonstrations at Rajadhiraj Yoga Kendra, Hetauda, Nepal. Local people appreciated the program very much. March 23, 2008 post
183 Yoga-Meditation Without Borders Network AMAYE supports the initiative to bring Yoga-Meditation to all people of the world. Instructions in Yoga-Meditation should be as free as sunlight and fresh air. AMAYE supports the notion that it is birth right of each and every sincere seeker to get access to the precious yogic and spiritual knowledge as propounded by Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiiji. However, one must be ready to follow the conduct rules laid for the practitioners of yoga-meditation and be ready to follow the path of service. Come , join our "Yoga-Meditation Without Borders Network" Please contact: <a href=""></a> March 31, 2008 post
186 Yogiis in Service Marcus Bussey and his late-wife Jayanti from Australia had painstakingly documented journeys of many living yogii women devoted to service. The book has just been published and can be ordered or reviewed via website <a title="" href=""></a> . " Fire in Our Eyes, Flowers in Our Hearts:Tantric Women Tell Their Stories" Edited by Jennifer Jayanti Fitzgerald &amp; Marcus Bussey March 31, 2008 post
189 Yoga Teachers Training Intensive in Bangkok A four day Yoga Teachers Intensive was recently conducted by Dada Shiilabhadrananda and Dada Premamayananda in Bangkok. It was attended by 17 budding yoga instructors of Thailand. Follow-up activities are planned. For more details , please contact <a href=""></a> February 23, 2008 post
191 Yoga Teachers Training Seminar in Davao <div>At Ananda Suveda: Km 12 Cabantian, Davao City, Philippines. Please contact Dada Mantrajapananda &amp; Didi Ananda Carushiila. May 6-10th, 2008.</div> March 31, 2008 post
193 Wellness Center & Yoga Therapy in Phillipines <div>Join the new global wave of people who enjoy health and happiness by eliminating toxins and harmful stress! An affordable live-in natural healing centre has been started in Cebu, Phillipines under the guidance of Dada Dharmavedananda, a yogii of Ananda Marga. Empower yourself from with in.For more information, please consult <a title="" href=""></a> or contact Dada at +63-9273155112 or write to <a href=""></a></div> March 15, 2008 post
197 Nature Cure Center in Surabaya, Indonesia Yoga as a Natural Therapy has been practiced in Bali and Indonesia at many places. Please contact Dada Mitrabuddhyananda at <a href=""></a> 081338581724 for a new project being started for disease prevention and rehabilitation. Jln.Tenggilis Mejoyo AN-33 Surabaya, Indonesia. Homeopathy is also employed for traeting different health conditions. March 12, 2008 post
204 New Jan 2008 classes Beginner ,Intermediate and Advanced Classes available. Kidz Yoga: Saturday 2:30pm – 4:00pm *Please visit our website for more details on schedule &amp; fees. Ananda Marga Yoga Society of Singapore. March 31, 2008 post
205 Yoga Therapy and Nature Cure Clinic in South Korea <div>Dr. Hima'dari (Hyung Jin, Kim), MD, Ph.D. has recently opened a Kang Nam Natural Medical Clinic. For more information, please consult his website <a title="" href=""></a> or contact him at: <a href=""></a></div> March 31, 2008 post
207 Baan Sang Suk offers Rajadhiraja Yoga in Bangkok A new center called Baan Sang Suk (A House of Awakening) has been inaugurated in Bangkok to offer instruction in Rajadhiraja Yoga in Thai among other neohumanist programs in collaboration with Neohumanist Foundation of Thailand. For details , please contact Jayadhiira and Nandita in Bangkok: <a href=""></a> or <a href=""></a> March 31, 2008 post
210 Yoga for Kids Camp in Kaulalumpur In order to help children improve flexibility, increase confidence, focus mind , improve balancing and to foster self-expression, Yog'Kidz Centre is conducting regiular weekend camps for children. The events are organized by Neohumanist Recreation Centre at Puchong, KL, Malaysia. Enhancement activities also include songs,drama,team building games,loving plantation,nutritious food making,playful postures etc. +60-12-9146342/012-6351830. March 31, 2008 post
213 News from Northern Thailand <div>The story of Yoga in Lampang Rajabhat University is indeed interesting. Rajabhat University in Lampang,Thailand has now (2007-2008) embraced Neohumanist Education YES program with over 400 students choosing to practice yoga and kaoshiki regularly. Last year, three professors from the University visited CNS-Sweden. The University completed a million baht study last year that lasted over six months and found that Neohumanist approach to yoga is good for students all round well being , concentration and quality of life. Now, a yoga club is being started also under the guidance of Prof. Surachai and his colleagues from the Faculty of Education and Psychology. Prof. Nuntaka Taweepkul is also teaching course on Self Development &amp; Quality of Life; Yoga for the Brain using Neohumanist techniques including Yoga. Chiang Mai University Medical School also had a program of yoga instruction led by Ms. Taweekpul. Dr. Shambhushivananda who brought yoga &amp; neohumanist education modalities in Lampang &amp; surrounding areas eight years ago participated in a special performance given by students of the University. Recently, Mumfort College in Chiang Mai also invited Prof. Kitiawan from Bangkok due to growing interest in Neohumanist Philsophy among its staff and students in Northern Thailand. As result of the yoga-kids program of Rakrook Neohumanist Nursery, the Lampang Assumption School has also included yoga training in its curriculum. The graduates of Neohumanist Yoga Centre are teaching yoga and neohumanist methods at different places now.</div> March 31, 2008 post
215 Yoga Teachers Training in Brazil Since 2004 we have been giving two courses a year - one is intensive for 3 weeks during january and the other is extensive - one weekend a month from March to December. Both courses are of 150 class hours. Students receive a diploma in the name of the legally registered Ananda Marga organisation of Brasil. The students get our manual, some AM books and T-shirts with our logo. I was happy to learn of the AMAYE initiative. Dada Diipajinanananda February 23, 2008 post
217 YEC'2007 DVDs and Powerpoints CDs Available Now ! A set of seven DVDs on different themes are available online for a special price of 90 euros inclusive of postage from <a title="" href=""></a>. A CD of all powerpoints presented at the First Yoga Educators Conference in Ydrefors, Sweden in July, 2007 is available for 15 euros (inclusive of postage). Anyone interested may order from CNS-Sweden, Ydrefors, 59081 Gullringen, Sweden or request via an email to <a href=""></a> January 31, 2008 post
219 Kids Yoga Poster-2 Sister Arunima of Taiwan has prepared the second sequel to her earlier Kids Yoga Poster. For more information, please contact: <a href=""></a> or <a href=""></a> January 31, 2008 post
223 S T R E S S ! <a href=""><img title="S T R E S S !" alt="S T R E S S !" src="" width="100" height="99" /></a>We can control stress through regular daily practice of Yoga and Meditation. Please contact an acarya of Ananda Marga for personal instruction in meditation. Special Workshop on Oct. 27th in Singapore. Consult events for more information. January 31, 2008 post
224 Yoga Wellness Centre Opened in Mongolia Ananda Yoga Wellness Centre' was opened in Ulan Bator, Mongolia (<a title="" href=""></a>) on Friday October 12,2007.The ceremony was a great success and was attended by about 50 people.Representatives from the city health department and the director of The Mongolian College of Alternative Medicine attended the ceremony. Two TV news channels covered the event and you can see a video of one of the stories at: <a title="" href=""></a> October 23, 2007 post
227 Yoga for Youth- Yogi Guides: a program of STU-VOL (Student Volunteers) <a title="" href=""></a> October 31, 2007 post
230 Ra'ja'dhira'ja Yoga Training Certified Courses <div> <div> <div><label>Start: </label>14/01/2009 - 08:29</div> </div> Certificate and Diploma Course in Yoga Science [Ananda Marga Yoga Society of Singapore] <a href="">AMYS</a>The Ananda Marga Yoga Society now offers Certificate &amp; Diploma courses in Yoga Science. These courses are affiliated with the Ananda Marga Association for Yoga Educators International [AMAYE] and the Gurukula Global education Network, Sweden. The courses offer a scientific, systematic and modern approach to Yoga studies and research. Our aim is to give the student a complete foundation in the physical, mental, spiritual and social aspects of Yoga science. We offer a wide range of modules to educate yoga health professionals, yoga teachers, yoga students or anyone with an interest in the science of Yoga. Our courses focus on both practical and theoretical aspects, with an integrated emphasis on the student’s personal development in yoga and meditation. The courses also include personal guidance from our Acaryas (yoga monks and nuns). Our trainers are internationally recognized instructors and are highly skilled and experienced in the field of yoga education. Most of our trainers are Acaryas and have undergone an ancient discipline of yogic training. For more information please visit our website @ or send an email to <a href=""></a> </div> november 23, 2008 post
234 Prabha't Sam'giita Academy Opened in Ydrefors On the occasion of 25th anniversary of Prabha't Sam'giita, a PSA (Prabha't Sam'giita Academy) was inaugurated in Ydrefors, Sweden. Among its activities are included: Voice Lessons; Music Lessons using different instruments; Learning to sing PS correctly; Research on PS; Knowledge of Ragas &amp; Raginiis; Popularising PS among general public; Circle of Love Study Circle; Preparing PS learning materials; PS workshops, seminars led by knowledgeable persons; PSA Reference library &amp; Archives; Training in Dances based on PS; Drama that includes PS; October 31, 2008 post
235 Yoga Trainers Training in USA Ananda Marga Yoga Teachers Training in USA was successfully concluded at Prama Insituite, Asheville with a successful Yoga Fest. Over a dozen students from several countries got an indepth training in yoga anatomy, yoga-techniques, yoga history and varied other topics. Among the teachers were: Ac. Vishvarupananda Avt., Sister Kaoverii- author of Self Massage, Mahajyoti Glassman, Dr. Viveka and Ramesh Bjonnes- author of the book on "Yoga-the path of love and awakening". January 31, 2008 post
247 Yoga Lifestyle Series at Prama Institute <strong></strong>In November the Prama Institute began offering its Yoga Life Styles Series beginning with the<strong> Yoga of Self Care</strong> led by Ac. Vishvamitra and Kristen Wallace, a yoga teacher who had taken the Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher Training. This workshop featured the theme of the <strong>Ethics of Love</strong> with experiential exercises to illustrate the love of self and others reflected in Yama and Niyama along with asanas, meditation and kiirtan. The second workshop in the Yoga Life Style series led by Ac. Vishvamitra, Ramesh and Hiranmaya was the <strong>Yoga of Silence</strong> offered in February which involved twenty participants in sitting, walking and eating meditation, punctuated with brief lectures and stories. Janika led the group in daily yoga classes. Fifteen participants requested meditation lessons and have joined a group meditation at the Ananda Marga jagrti in following up their Yoga of Silence retreat. <img class="alignleft" style="margin-right: 15px;" title="prama institute yoga life style" src="" alt="" width="260" height="193" />The third Yoga Lifestyle Workshop given in May was <strong>Yoga Detox</strong> presented by Dada Dharmavedananda who directs the Ananda Marga Health Center in Cebu Philippines. This workshop, assisted by the Prama staff, involved physical and psychic cleansing. The participants did extensive meditation to clear the mind along with a 36 hour juice fast, mud and steam baths to cleanse the body of toxins. The participants benefited greatly from daily classes that included a power point on diet and fasting presented in a participatory style by Dada Dharmavedananda. Many expressed a desire to visit his clinic in the Philippines for a more extended 7 day detox program. The Prama Institute is planning to sponsor a trip to the Ananda Marga Health Center in Cebu Philippines for those interested in going. Some of our staff is planning to undertake training with Dada in order to continue giving Yoga Detox programs at the Prama Institute. <strong>Other Programs</strong> <img class="alignright" src="" alt="" />The Prama Institute continues to have repeat business from many yoga, meditation and healing groups. Jason, a Peruvian shaman returned in December as did Asheville Yoga Center for an Ayurvedic program. Willington NC Yoga and North Main Yoga of Greenville, SC are returning twice within the next 6 months. Kundalini Yoga is offering a program for 70 participants in May. The Awakened Heart, a meditation group from a Jewish temple, led by Professor Rick Chess, Professor of Literature and Director of the Center for Jewish Studies at University of North Carolina will return for its second retreat this May. <strong>Sadhana and Philosophy Intensive</strong> The Prama Institute has a full schedule form May through November and is featuring an eight day Sadhana and Philosophy Intensive from July 31 to August 8, 2010. Workshops will include: Spiritual Practice and Sentient Health with Ac. Jyotirishananda Avt. Tantra for Contemporary Living with Ac. Pranakrsnananda Avt. The Inner Spirit of Bhakti and Karma Yoga with Avtk. Ananda Usa Ac. The Specialty of Ananda Marga Practices: A Comparative Study of Popular Contemporary Yoga Practice with Kristine Weber Tantric History and its Relevance to Our Sadhana Practices with Roar Bjonnes Living with Immortality: Exploring best practices for exhausting our sam’skaras with Howard Nemon Biopsychology for Individualized Yoga Therapy and Cooperation with Ac. Vishvamitra <em>For further information visit: <a href="" target="_blank"></a></em> <em>or contact the Prama Institute at: <strong></strong> /</em> 1-828-649-9408 . <strong>Internship</strong> The MU and Prama Institute is planning to start an internship in June that would be open to men and women who are interested in a 3 month residential work-study program. Participants would live in housing on the land and have a daily schedule that involves meditation, yoga postures, spiritual philosophy classes, organic gardening, landscaping and participation in supporting Prama Institute programs for the public. Interested parties can contact the Prama Institute at the<a href="" target="_blank"><em></em></a> website and 1 828-649-9408 . May 2, 2012 post
257 Research on AM meditation <a href=""><a href="">med connectivity EEG tomog</a> </a> Abstract: Brain functional states are established by functional connectivities between brain regions. In experienced meditators (13 Tibetan Buddhists, 15 QiGong, 14 Sahaja Yoga, 14 Ananda Marga Yoga, 15 Zen), 19-channel EEG wasrecorded before, during and after that meditation exercise which their respective tradition regards as route to the most desirable meditative state. The head surface EEG data were recomputed (sLORETA) into 19 cortical regional source model time series. All 171 functional connectivities between regions were computed as ‘lagged coherence’ for the eight EEG frequency bands (delta through gamma). This analysis removes ambiguities of localization, volume conduction-induced inflation of coherence, and reference-dependence. All significant differences (corrected for multiple testing) between meditation compared to no-task rest before and after meditation showed lower coherence during meditation, in all five traditions and eight (inhibitory as well as excitatory) frequency bands. Conventional coherence between the original head surface EEG time series very predominantly also showed reduced coherence during meditation. The topography of the functional connectivities was examined via PCA-based computation of principal connectivities. When going into and out of meditation, significantly different connectivities revealed clearly different topographies in the delta frequency band and minor differences in the beta-2 band. The globally reduced functional interdependence between brain regions in meditation suggests that interaction between the self process functions is minimized, and that constraints on the self process by other processes are minimized, thereby leading to the subjective experience of non-involvement, detachment and letting go, as well as of all-oneness and dissolution of ego borders during meditation. <em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel"><em id="__mceDel">© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em> april 4, 2013 post
268 Cakras and Spiritual Development <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-270" alt="Cakras and Spiritual dev" src="" width="300" height="218" /></a> What are the cakras? How do they affect us? This class explains the mental propensities connected with each cakra and how to express themin a positive way. It also sheds light on the mysterious Kundalinii - our latent spritual potential which lies sleeping at the base of the spine until awakened by initiation, and how to develop spiritually in a safe yet dynamic way. Didi Ananda Jayati will lead a discussion in Malta on April 5th. Centru Tbexbix 61, St Lazarus Street, Cospicua.Malta april 4, 2013 post
274 Yoga Teachers Training in Iceland Yoga Teacher Training in Iceland / Yoga Immersion 30. July – 19. August 2013 Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher training will be held for the first time this year in Iceland. It will be a 200 hour, yoga allience credited, training lasting for 3 weeks. The site choosen for this years training is an old boarding school called Hlíðardalsskóli or the Hill Valley school. The school is located near to the small town of Hveragerði, or the garden of hot springs(Geysirs) and the school accually has its own hot spring were it gets all its hot water for heating, showers etc. Many nice places are in a short driving distance, including a hot river to bath in, up in the hills. The school has two person rooms and a big gymnasium where most of the training will take place. The same school has been used for dozens of retreats counting up to 150 people, so we have enough space Price is set at 320.000 icelandic krónars or 2000 EUR for those coming from Europ and 2500 us dollars for those travelling from the U.S.A. Included in the price is: Food(including cooks), acommodation, teaching and everything on site. You will have to get yourself to Iceland (flights are pretty cheap at the moment) and from the airport to the site. At the moment we are building a jagriti in Reykjavík, so if thats ready by August there is the possibility of staying there overnight. Registration: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="nofollow nofollow">http://<wbr />anandamargayogateachertrain<wbr /><wbr />Default.aspx?pageId=1290165</a> april 5, 2013 post
276 International Bio-Psychology Conference in 2016 <a href=""><img class="size-medium wp-image-280 alignright" style="margin-left: 20px;" alt="BioPsychology-Conf-20162" src="" width="300" height="224" /></a>AMGK (Ananda Marga Gurukula) will host an international Bio-Psychology Conference in 2016 possibly in Thailand or some place in Asia. Dr. Richard Maxwell (Ithaca) and Dr. Dada Shambhushivananda (Kulapati, AMGK) recently met in Ithaca to discuss the possible venues , academic areas which would be discussed at the conference and other related issues concerning the development of Faculty of Psychology/YIS-Yoga and Intuitional Science of Ananda Marga Gurukula.Some of the topics that would be covered during the conference will include: cakras, vrttis, asanas, kundalinii, brain function during meditation, samadhi, and relationships with social issues such as violence, mental health, obesity, and gender orientation.Kindly stay tuned for further details. april 5, 2013 post
307 Bliss Cafe in Stockholm <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-312" alt="Bliss Cafe Cooking Course" src="" width="150" height="150" /></a>If you wish to learn about Raw Foods and a sentient life-style, please come to the Bliss Cafe in Stockholm and catch up with Dada Shantimaya. &nbsp; april 27, 2013 post
322 Yoga and Gene Expression: Univ of Oslo Research <blockquote>Studies have shown yoga to be <a href="" target="_hplink">beneficial</a> for both physical and mental health, but the biological mechanisms for <em>why</em> have been poorly understood -- until now. <a href="" target="_hplink">New research</a> from the University of Oslo has determined that yoga practices can have an almost immediate impact on gene expression, particularly in immune cells. From <a href="" target="_hplink">previous research </a>, we know that yoga is linked to not only lower stress levels, but also <a href="" target="_hplink">bone health</a>, reduced back pain, relief from depression, and lower risk factors for heart disease, among other health benefits. However, the means by which these positive effects are enacted have been poorly understood. The small Norwegian study, <a href="" target="_hplink">published this month in the journal <em>PLOS ONE</em></a>, has found genetic evidence of yoga's impact on the immune system. In the study, researchers examined 10 participants who underwent a weeklong yoga retreat where they did meditation, yogic postures and yogic breathing exercises. Examining the participants' blood before and after four-hour yoga sessions showed that the yoga practice changed the expression of 111 genes in circulating immune cells. In contrast, music and walking-based relaxation changed the expression of 38 genes. "There are rapid (within two hours of start of practice) and significant gene expression changes... during a comprehensive yoga program," <a href="" target="_hplink">the research team writes in the study</a>. "These data suggest that previously reported effects of yoga practices have an integral physiological component at the molecular level which is initiated immediately during practice and may form the basis for the long-term stable effects." The results suggest that yoga may as effective, or even more so, than traditional exercise in inducing health benefits through changes on the genetic level, <a href="" target="_hplink">the study's authors note</a>. And although it's long been known that yoga can reduce stress, a <a href="" target="_hplink">UCLA study</a> also recently determined <em>how </em>the practice can induce relaxation. Practicing a type of chanting yogic meditation daily for eight weeks was found to lower stress levels by reducing biological mechanisms responsible for increasing the immune system's inflammation response -- and stress is known to <a href="" target="_hplink">spur inflammation</a>. &nbsp;</blockquote> <blockquote><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href="" target="_blank"><wbr />2013/04/24/yoga-immune-system-<wbr />genetic-_n_3141008.html?utm_<wbr />hp_ref=mostpopular</a></span></blockquote> <blockquote><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href="" target="_blank"><wbr />article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%<wbr />2Fjournal.pone.0061910</a></span></blockquote> May 3, 2013 post
328 Yoga in Joburg,South Africa Dada Shiilabhadrananda , a world renowned yoga and meditation teacher of Rajadhiraja Yoga  has initiated a new set of yoga and meditation classes at School of Business. Please contact him for more details . he is also leading silence retreats, wellness activities, life style training and a lot more. <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-329" alt="safe_image" src="" width="152" height="114" /></a> June 3, 2013 post
343 Fasting can regenerate immune system Latest study at the University of California shows that even a three day fast can kick start stem cells into producing new white blood cells,which fight off infection. Ofcourse, medical guidance is advised. &nbsp; <blockquote style="color: #222222;"> <div> <div> <div class="adM"> <div class="im" style="color: #500050;"> <div> FASTING FOR THREE DAYS CAN REGENERATE ENTIRE IMMUNE SYSTEM, STUDY FINDS By Sarah Knapton The Telegraph June 5, 2014 <a style="color: #1155cc;" href="" target="_blank"><wbr />news/uknews/10878625/Fasting-<wbr />for-three-days-can-regenerate-<wbr />entire-immune-system-study-<wbr />finds.html</a> Fasting for as little as three days can regenerate the entire immune system, even in the elderly, scientists have found in a breakthrough described as "remarkable". Although fasting diets have been criticised by nutritionists for being unhealthy, new research suggests starving the body kick-starts stem cells into producing new white blood cells, which fight off infection. Scientists at the University of Southern California say the discovery could be particularly beneficial for people suffering from damaged immune systems, such as cancer patients on chemotherapy. It could also help the elderly whose immune system becomes less effective as they age, making it harder for them to fight off even common diseases. The researchers say fasting "flips a regenerative switch" which prompts stem cells to create brand new white blood cells, essentially regenerating the entire immune system. "It gives the 'OK' for stem cells to go ahead and begin proliferating and rebuild the entire system," said Prof Valter Longo, Professor of Gerontology and the Biological Sciences at the University of California. "And the good news is that the body got rid of the parts of the system that might be damaged or old, the inefficient parts, during the fasting. "Now, if you start with a system heavily damaged by chemotherapy or ageing, fasting cycles can generate, literally, a new immune system." Prolonged fasting forces the body to use stores of glucose and fat but also breaks down a significant portion of white blood cells. During each cycle of fasting, this depletion of white blood cells induces changes that trigger stem cell-based regeneration of new immune system cells. In trials humans were asked to regularly fast for between two and four days over a six-month period. Scientists found that prolonged fasting also reduced the enzyme PKA, which is linked to ageing and a hormone which increases cancer risk and tumour growth. "We could not predict that prolonged fasting would have such a remarkable effect in promoting stem cell-based regeneration of the hematopoietic system," added Prof Longo. "When you starve, the system tries to save energy, and one of the things it can do to save energy is to recycle a lot of the immune cells that are not needed, especially those that may be damaged," Dr Longo said. "What we started noticing in both our human work and animal work is that the white blood cell count goes down with prolonged fasting. Then when you re-feed, the blood cells come back. So we started thinking, well, where does it come from?" Fasting for 72 hours also protected cancer patients against the toxic impact of chemotherapy. "While chemotherapy saves lives, it causes significant collateral damage to the immune system. The results of this study suggest that fasting may mitigate some of the harmful effects of chemotherapy," said co-author Tanya Dorff, assistant professor of clinical medicine at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital. "More clinical studies are needed, and any such dietary intervention should be undertaken only under the guidance of a physician." "We are investigating the possibility that these effects are applicable to many different systems and organs, not just the immune system," added Prof Longo. However, some British experts were sceptical of the research. Dr Graham Rook, emeritus professor of immunology at University College London, said the study sounded "improbable". Chris Mason, Professor of Regenerative Medicine at UCL, said: "There is some interesting data here. It sees that fasting reduces the number and size of cells and then re-feeding at 72 hours saw a rebound. "That could be potentially useful because that is not such a long time that it would be terribly harmful to someone with cancer. "But I think the most sensible way forward would be to synthesize this effect with drugs. I am not sure fasting is the best idea. People are better eating on a regular basis." Dr Longo added: "There is no evidence at all that fasting would be dangerous while there is strong evidence that it is beneficial. "I have received emails from hundreds of cancer patients who have combined chemo with fasting, many with the assistance of the oncologists. "Thus far the great majority have reported doing very well and only a few have reported some side effects including fainting and a temporary increase in liver markers. Clearly we need to finish the clinical trials, but it looks very promising." ............... <h2>Fasting</h2> <h4>William T. Jarvis, Ph.D.</h4> Fasting involves voluntary total food deprivation (water only or distilled water only), juice-fasting which permits fruit juices or distilled water and lemon juice. Fasting has a long history as a symbolic demonstration of religious devotion, act of protest, or commitment to a political cause. Various so-called "natural health" or "hygienic" practitioners advocate fasting to "cleanse the body" or as a cure-all. Herbert Shelton, advocate of "natural hygiene"[1] and originator of the erroneous idea of "food combining" popularized by the best-selling pseudonutrition book <em>Fit For Life</em>, was an influential advocate of fasting. Other Shelton disciples include: <ul> <li>Judy Mazel, author of <em>The Beverly Hills Diet</em> (1981), said to be "ludicrous" and "full of misinformation so strange that it would be funny, except that so many people seem to believe it."</li> <li>Firewalk guru Tony Robbins, author of <em>Unlimited Power</em> which also taught nutrition nonsense (See <em>NCAHF Newsletter</em>, Jan-Feb, 1995).</li> </ul> Contrary to the teachings of proponents, fasting doesn't "cleanse" or "rest" the liver. If anything, fasting overworks the liver by saturating it with toxins produced by fasting itself [2]. Fasting can be dangerous, especially when undertaken or supervised by ideologists who are blind to its actual effects. Shelton's fasting regime was responsible for several deaths. A 49-yr-old man died of bronchial pneumonia that resulted from a 30-day distilled water diet sponsored by "Dr. Shelton's Health School" in Texas (said to be sixth such death in five years while undergoing treatment at the school) [3] Proponents of fasting often evoke the dangerous "healing crisis" theory of naturopathy alleging that adverse symptoms experienced by the faster are "poisons being expelled by the body." The misguided theory that adverse symptoms should be expected and welcomed as the body's "re-tracing" is explained by Stanley Bass, ND, DC, PhC (Philosopher of Chiropractic): The toxins being discarded are saving you from more serious disease which will result if you keep them in your body too much longer--possibly hepatitis, kidney disorders, blood disease, heart disease, arthritis, nerve degenerations or even cancer--depending upon your hereditary or structural weaknesses. Be happy you're paying your bills now in an easy payment plan. With some, colds which haven't appeared for a long time may occur, or even fevers. THIS IS NATURE'S WAY OF HOUSECLEANING. DON'T -- but DON'T try to stop these symptoms ...These symptoms are part of a curing process, and don't try to cure a cure. Those who have lived worse lives and poisoned themselves more will experience more severe symptoms. Headaches may occur at the beginning; fever and/or colds may appear; the skin may break out; there may be a short interval of bowel sluggishness, occasional diarrhea, feelings of tiredness and weakness, disinclination to exercise, nervousness, irritability, negativity or mental depression, frequent urination, etc.REALIZE DEEPLY that your body is becoming younger and healthier every day because you are throwing off more and more wastes which would eventually have brought pain, disease and suffering. Those who have the worst symptoms . . . and follow through to their successful termination are thus avoiding some of the worst diseases which would eventually have developed had they continued their careless eating habits. The notion that adverse symptoms should be disregarded, or even rejoiced about, caused Bivian Lee to ignore serious symptoms of cardiac myopathy that developed during a very-low-calorie Herbalife diet program. When Lee blacked out, his wife discovered his condition and made an appointment for him to see a physician. Sadly, Lee died in front of his 4-year-old daughter before the appointment could be kept [4]. <strong>Physical Effects of Fasting</strong> Except for the brain, which consumes more calories than any other organ and has a constant need for glucose whether one is asleep or awake, one's metabolic rate varies with physical activity and by day and nightime effects. The body's ongoing need for nutrition is met by stores in the cells and liver, circulating blood, and gastrointestinal contents. Fasting causes blood sugar to drop. This leads to a breakdown (catabolism) of muscle and other protein tissue for energy. During fasting, catabolism is a kind of "self-cannibalism" the by-products of which (ammonia and urea) lead to acidosis that produces weakness, fatigue, irritability, depression, depressed libido, and a sick feeling. Fasting does not cleanse the system, but loads it with metabolic toxins while decreasing its ability to destroy and excrete these. Fasting leads to rapid loss of water, sodium, and potassium. This decreases blood volume which produces postural hypotension (low blood pressure when standing up), and fainting. Severe potassium depletion can cause a fatal heart rhythm disturbance. The body cannot differentiate between voluntary fasting and starvation and deaths have occurred even with medically supervised fasts and near-fasts. People who survive prolonged fasts (starvation) may suffer anemia, decreased immunity, osteoporosis, kidney damage, or liver damage. Depressed gastrointestinal or digestive functions may persist for weeks or months [v]. The worst thing about fasting is its destruction of lean and vital tissue needed for a healthy and active life. Fasting, like colonic irrigation, laxatives, sweat baths, and other naturopathic regimes are at best useless, and at worst, can be fatal. Fasting is particularly dangerous for children. <strong>Case. </strong>A 3.5 yr-old girl died of malnutrition and pneumonia following a 27-day water fast [6]. Her parents were disciples of a naturopath, Kenneth Jaffrey, who believed that fasting was beneficial. The couple placed the little girl on a diet of distilled water for 27 days to clean her body of toxins that they believed had built up through expose to orthodox medicine. The girl's father was described as "intolerant of medical practitioners" and "arrogant in view of life." At death, the child was half of her expected weight [7]. <ol> <li> A 9-year-old girl died in Ottawa, Canada after being on a water-only diet for 40-days. Mellissa Larochelle was treated at home in the northern Ontario town of Hearst with the diet which, according to provincial police "apparently has some religious overtones to it. It's somehow connected to the 40 days and nights Jesus fasted and its supposed to purge your system," they said. Mellissa was seized by the Children's Aid Society and hospitalized in Ottawa but died on March 16, 1990. The girl's grandmother, Rollande Turgeon, 55, was sentenced to 6 months in jail on January 18, 1991 after pleading guilty to negligence causing bodily harm. Turgeon had taken courses and was accredited by the American Hygiene Association. She operated a so-called fasting clinic at her house. Turgeon was treating Mellissa for an ear infection. In passing sentence the judge said that Turgeon had made a grave error in judgment by not contacting doctors sooner. He stated that "she was blinded by the principles of fasting and didn't believe in medical intervention." [8]</li> </ol> <strong>Psychology of Fasting</strong> The psychology of fasting is consistent with asceticism (self-denial). Ascetics find pleasure in pain. This reversal of perception is rooted in a negative self-concept. Ascetics feel badly when good things happen to them because they do not feel worthy. They feel good when they are deprived of what gives normal people pleasure because they are getting what they feel they deserve. Puritans were ascetics. They are remembered for the concept that "if it feels good, don't touch it," "if it tastes good, don't eat it," and "if it looks good, cover your eyes!" Ascetics love to give up things. When they are sick they often think, "If I give up something more, I will be better." Fasting and austere diets that amount to near-fasting have appeal to ascetics for whom sacrifice has become the route to health and eternal salvation. Little wonder that many religious zealots demonstrate their extreme devotion by fasting. The importance of psychological factors in the desire to fast can be seen in case reports. <ol> <li> A 36-yr-old male adherent to the Temple Beautiful diet died of malnutrition attempting to become a holy man who could live on air alone. Five years earlier, David Blume had been pursuing an idyllic career as an English teacher at Nathaniel Hawthorne college in New England. His students loved him. He was a tall, handsome man with clear, bright eyes and a gift for sharing ideas. Blume lost his teaching job because of budget cuts, and was unable to secure satisfactory employment. During his period of vulnerability, he meet Steven Haasz, founder and leader of Temple Beautiful. Haasz was a disciple of Ann Wigmore, originator of the wheatgrass fad. Blume chose the most rigorous of the group's dietary options and began subsisting almost entirely on raw wheatgrass juice. His aim was to become a "breatharian" -- a holy man who could live on air alone. On October 6, 1979, Blume's lifeless body was found on the floor of his shabby Philadelphia apartment. He was 6 feet tall and weighed 87 lbs [9].</li> <li> Several "patients" of Arthur Andrews, operator of the California Health Sanctuary at Hollister, CA, died following prolonged fasting. The California medical licensing board brought charges against Andrews for practicing medicine without a license because the purpose of the fasting had been to heal medical conditions. The defense argued that Andrews' regime was intended to "heal the soul," which was a religious matter. Andrews was fined $1,000 for the unlawful practice of medicine, but was allowed to continue operating as a religious retreat as long as he did not practice medicine [10].</li> </ol> NCAHF strongly advises against the use of prolonged fasting for health purposes, and believes that requiring children to fast is a form of child abuse. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- <strong>Fasting - Kidneys</strong> <strong><a href="">Back to Science and Medicine</a></strong> &nbsp; Source: <a href="">Wikipedia - Fasting</a> (and other Wikipedia pages) When we fast we have to make sure that our body is ok. <strong>Fasting and Kidneys</strong> The kidneys filter out waste products from the blood and excrete those into the urine. The kidneys also regulate the levels of electrolytes in the blood, the pH balance and blood pressure. The kidneys also produce certain hormones. Hormones are chemicals that regulate specific body functions and health. The body uses the sugar glucose as its source of energy. If we cease to eat, or are eating less and our food does not supply the amount of energy that our body is using, we gradually run out of glucose. The body then uses glucose storage glycogen, and when glycogen runs out the body breaks down fat for energy. When the person runs out of fat to burn, the body spends proteins for energy source. By the time when the body is using protein for energy, we say that the body is no longer fasting, it is starving. Starvation can lead to kidney failure. "Kidney failure" sounds like the kidneys dying, but is actually the name for kidneys not functioning properly. Kidney failure means that the filtration rate of the kidneys is impaired and reduced and the kidneys are unable to carry out their filtration properly. Waste products and toxins may accumulate in the blood stream. If high levels of urea accumulate in the blood, symptoms appear such as vomiting or diarrhea, nausea, weight loss, nocturnal urination, more frequent urination or of unusually larger amount and pale color, or less frequent urination in smaller amounts and dark color. Blood in the urine, or feeling a pressure or difficulty urinating. Abnormal fluid levels in the body or inappropriate pH. Abnormal levels of potassium, calcium or phosphate. Buildup of potassium in the blood can cause abnormal heart rhythms and muscle paralysis. A buildup of phosphate can lead to itching, bone damage, or muscle cramps due to low levels of calcium. Kidney failure can cause proteins from the blood, which are normally too large to pass, to enter into the urine, causing the urine to become foamy or bubbly as well as swelling in the hands, feet, abdomen, or face; the condition is called proteinuria. Failing kidneys may produce less of the hormone erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Less of the hormone means fewer red blood cells are produced, leading long-term to anemia. Anemic blood cannot carry enough oxygen, resulting in the person feeling tired, weak, to have memory problems, difficulty concentrating, dizziness, and low blood pressure, possibly due to insufficient oxygen to tissue which in turn means that the body is unable to use oxygen to convert glucose or other energy source chemicals into energy. Kidney failure can also cause a loss of appetite. A bad taste in the mouth. Difficulty sleeping. Darkening of the skin. Causes of kidney failure (that are relevant to fasting or starvation) include the kidneys being overloaded with toxins, or insufficient blood supply to the kidneys. There are two forms of kidney failure: acute, and chronic. Kidneys can recover from acute kidney failure and return back to normal although with some risk of relapse. Chronic kidney failure is far more serious and might not be reversible. The two most common causes of chronic kidney failure are diabetes mellitus and uncontrolled long-term high blood pressure. Severe cases of chronic kidney failure require dialysis or a kidney transplant. People can buy a simple blood testing kit for home to test their levels of creatinine in the blood. Its reading can then be converted into a measure of kidney function. Creatinine is a toxic substance which healthy kidneys excrete from the blood. Elevated levels of creatinine may indicate kidney failure. <strong>Comments</strong> I am no expert on topics of health and would like to do a lot more in-depth study into the topic of kidneys, fasting and health, but one thing that is striking is that many of the physical symptoms that indicate to kidney failure are ones that many in the Breatharian culture interpret as being good signs of detoxification. I am however not convinced that these symptoms are beneficial or that they be signs that the body is cleaning itself. The bad taste in the mouth, frequent urination of small amounts and dark urine, weakness, problems with concentration, dizziness, memory problems, are typical symptoms that people experience when they are doing a fast that is intended to be part of activation of Breatharianism. I do not believe that these symptoms are signs that the body is cleaning itself or that it is improving itself, it is more than likely signs that the body is dehydrated and that the kidneys are not functioning properly. The problem is that Breatharianism is a physiological condition which seems to be activated mentally by the person by means of the collective of their thoughts, emotions, intentions, and beliefs, which seems to regulate the physical body into a state where it is able to endure prolongued periods of fasting, whereas without that mental stimulus the body would enter into all the typical conditions of starvation and dehydration. But not all who attempt Breatharianism are able to mentally activate it and so they have these typical symptoms of dehydration and starvation when they attempt to fast, but the problem is that many will then dismiss the seriousness of their symptoms and call them detoxification. Real Breatharianism does not involve these symptoms. I cannot advise anyone to attempt Breatharianism because of the many health risks, yet still there is such a physiological phenomenon as Breatharianism so it still deserves to be discussed. It is important that you do not end up with protein deficiency or dehydration. Take care of the kidneys and body. &nbsp; &nbsp; </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></blockquote> June 7, 2014 post
346 Can Okra cure diabetes ? &nbsp; <span style="font-family: Arial;"><span style="color: #000080; font-size: small;">This is a message posted on Facebook alleging that drinking water that after okra has soaked in it overnight will make the symptoms of diabetes disappear and the diabetes sufferer will never have to take insulin again.</span></span> It is not a proven remedy. More research is needed. <span style="font-family: Arial;"><span style="color: #000080; font-size: small;">There’s hope,however,that okra, a plant high in fiber and vitamin C, may offer health benefits to diabetes sufferers. This according to a 2011 <a href="" target="_blank"> study published by the National Center for Biotechnology</a> Information concluded that dried and ground okra peels and seeds decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.    The study said, "“There are many reports available to support the multiple mechanisms of antidiabetic plants to exert their blood glucose lowering effect, such as inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, regeneration of damaged pancreatic islet cells and enhancement of insulin secretion and release,” the researchers concluded." </span></span> June 7, 2014 post
354 Yoga Dances History and Therapeutic Benefits of Kiirtan, Kaoshikii and Tandava as taught by Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiiji. <a href="">Dances Final</a> september 5, 2014 post
361 Garlic- Food or Medicine? september 13, 2014 post
374 International Yoga Day June 21st has been declared as an International Yoga Day for Global Peace and harmony. June 7, 2015 post
378 Research Initiative on the Effect of Yoga and Meditation Ministry of Science and Technology of Govt. of India has launched a research initiative on investigating the effects of yoga and meditative practices on mental health and cognitive functioning in healthy people as well as patients with disorders. Interested researchers may refer to for further details. august 15, 2015 post
382 Harvard MRI study shows that Meditations rebuilds brain's grey matter in 8 weeks Test subjects taking part in an 8-week program of mindfulness meditation showed results that astonished even the most experienced neuroscientists at Harvard University. The study was led by a Harvard-affiliated team of researchers based at Massachusetts General Hospital, and the team’s MRI scans documented for the very first time in medical history how meditation produced massive changes inside the brain’s gray matter. “Although the practice of meditation is associated with a sense of peacefulness and physical relaxation, practitioners have long claimed that meditation also provides cognitive and psychological benefits that persist throughout the day,” says study senior author Sara Lazar of the MGH Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program and a Harvard Medical School instructor in psychology. “This study demonstrates that changes in brain structure may underlie some of these reported improvements and that people are not just feeling better because they are spending time relaxing.” Sue McGreevey of MGH writes: “Previous studies from Lazar’s group and others found structural differences between the brains of experienced meditation practitioners and individuals with no history of meditation, observing thickening of the cerebral cortex in areas associated with attention and emotional integration. But those investigations could not document that those differences were actually produced by meditation.” Until now, that is. The participants spent an average of 27 minutes per day practicing mindfulness exercises, and this is all it took to stimulate a major increase in gray matter density in the hippocampus, the part of the brain associated with self-awareness, compassion, and introspection. McGreevey adds: “Participant-reported reductions in stress also were correlated with decreased gray-matter density in the amygdala, which is known to play an important role in anxiety and stress. None of these changes were seen in the control group, indicating that they had not resulted merely from the passage of time.” “It is fascinating to see the brain’s plasticity and that, by practicing meditation, we can play an active role in changing the brain and can increase our well-being and quality of life,” says Britta Hölzel, first author of the paper and a research fellow at MGH and Giessen University in Germany. You can read more about the remarkable study by visiting If this is up your alley then you need to read this: “Listen As Sam Harris Explains How To Tame Your Mind (No Religion Required)” October 17, 2015 post
391 Yoga in Madeira, Portugal Ananda Marga Yoga Center started its activities in Madeira island on September 2004 and since then more than a thousand people have participated and benefited from it's main activity offered to the public: a Yoga Course where the purpose is to inspire people into learning and adopting Yoga practices such as Meditation and Ásanas in their lifestyle. This Course is structured in Modules with 8 classes each, where the students learn not only the most widely known Yoga exercise - ásanas - but also basic techniques of meditation that are life changing, as well as some Yoga practices unique to Ananda Marga like Kaoshikii and Self-massage. Prof. David Aveiro, in parallel to his academic career in the local University, has been coordinating this project since its inception, now accompanied by Prof. Marina Fonseca, from Brazil, with almost 20 years of experience in teaching Yoga. The testimonies found in their website ( testify that the benefits of a Yogic lifestyle like concentration, peace of mind, serenity, etc. are systematically obtained with practice, just like many scientific studies point to also. december 3, 2015 post
394 Researchers investigate results of Intermittent Fasting Dr. Mark Mattson and his team from John Hopkins University and National Institute of Aging have published several papers that discuss how fasting twice a week could significantly lower the risk of developing both Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. “Dietary changes have long been known to have an effect on the brain. Children who suffer from epileptic seizures have fewer of them when placed on caloric restriction or fasts. It is believed that fasting helps kick-start protective measures that help counteract the overexcited signals that epileptic brains often exhibit. (Some children with epilepsy have also benefited from a specific high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.) Normal brains, when overfed, can experience another kind of uncontrolled excitation, impairing the brain’s function, Mattson and another researcher reported in January in the journal Nature Reviews Neuroscience.”(source) Basically, when you take a look at caloric restriction studies, many of them show a prolonged lifespan as well as an increased ability to fight chronic disease. “Calorie restriction (CR) extends life span and retards age-related chronic diseases in a variety of species, including rats, mice, fish, flies, worms, and yeast. The mechanism or mechanisms through which this occurs are unclear.” The quote above is from a review of the literature that is more than 10 years old. The work presented here is now showing some of these mechanisms that were previously unclear. Fasting does good things for the brain, and this is evident by all of the beneficial neurochemical changes that happen in the brain when we fast. It also improves cognitive function, increases neurotrophic factors, increases stress resistance, and reduces inflammation. Fasting is a challenge to your brain, and your brain responds to that challenge by adapting stress response pathways which help your brain cope with stress and risk for disease. The same changes that occur in the brain during fasting mimic the changes that occur with regular exercise. They both increase the production of protein in the brain (neurotrophic factors), which in turn promotes the growth of neurons, the connection between neurons, and the strength of synapses. “Challenges to your brain, whether it’s intermittent fasting [or] vigorous exercise . . . is cognitive challenges. When this happens neuro-circuits are activated, levels of neurotrophic factors increase, that promotes the growth of neurons [and] the formation and strengthening of synapses. . . .” Fasting can also stimulate the production of new nerve cells from stem cells in the hippocampus. He also mentions ketones (an energy source for neurons), and how fasting stimulates the production of ketones and that it may also increase the number of mitochondria in neurons. Fasting also increases the number of mitochondria in nerve cells; this comes as a result of the neurons adapting to the stress of fasting (by producing more mitochondria). By increasing the number of mitochondria in the neurons, the ability for nerons to form and maintain the connections between each other also increases, thereby improving learning and memory ability. “Intermittent fasting enhances the ability of nerve cells to repair DNA.” He also goes into the evolutionary aspect of this theory – how our ancestors adapted and were built for going long periods of time without food. A study published in the June 5 issue of Cell Stem Cell by researchers from the University of Southern California showed that cycles of prolonged fasting protect against immune system damage and, moreover, induce immune system regeneration. They concluded that fasting shifts stem cells from a dormant state to a state of self-renewal. It triggers stem cell based regeneration of an organ or system. (source) Human clinical trials were conducted using patients who were receiving chemotherapy. For long periods of time, patients did not eat, which significantly lowered their white blood cell counts. In mice, fasting cycles “flipped a regenerative switch, changing the signalling pathways for hematopoietic stem cells, which are responsible for the generation of blood and immune systems.” This means that fasting kills off old and damaged immune cells, and when the body rebounds it uses stem cells to create brand new, completely healthy cells. “We could not predict that prolonged fasting would have such a remarkable effect in promoting stem cell-based regeneration of the heatopoietic system. . . . When you starve, the system tries to save energy, and one of the things it can do to save energy is to recycle a lot of the immune cells that are not needed, especially those that may be damaged. What we started noticing in both our human work and animal work is that the white blood cell count goes down with prolonged fasting. Then when you re-feed, the blood cells come back. ” – Valter Longo, corresponding author (source) A scientific review of multiple scientific studies regarding fasting was published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2007. It examined a multitude of both human and animal studies and determined that fasting is an effective way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It also showed significant potential in treating diabetes. (source) Before You Fast Before you fast, make sure you do your research. Personally, I’ve been fasting for years, so it is something that comes easy for me. One recommended way of doing it — which was tested by the BBC’s Michael Mosley in order to reverse his diabetes, high cholesterol, and other problems that were associated with his obesity — is what is known as the “5:2 Diet.” On the 5:2 plan, you cut your food down to one-fourth of your normal daily calories on fasting days (about 600 calories for men and about 500 for women), while consuming plenty of water and tea. On the other five days of the week, you can eat normally. Another way to do it, as mentioned above, is to restrict your food intake between the hours of 11am and 7pm daily, while not eating during the hours outside of that time. Bottom line, how you think about you’re diet is, in my opinion, one of the most, if not the most important part of staying healthy. How you think about what you are putting in your body is important, and I believe this will eventually be firmly established in the untainted, unbiased, uninfluenced medical literature of the future. Below is a video of Dr. Joseph Mercola explaining the benefits of intermittent fasting. Here is a great article by him that explains how he believes intermittent fasting can help you live a healthier life. december 15, 2015 post
399 On Garlic and what is does to the brain The reason garlic* is so toxic, the sulphone* hydroxyl* ion penetrates the blood-brain barrier, just like DMSO [a sulfoxide*], and is a specific poison for higher-life forms and brain cells. We discovered this, much to our horror, when I (Bob Beck, DSc) was the world's largest manufacturer of ethical EEG [electroencephalography*] feedback equipment. We'd have people come back from lunch that looked clinically dead on an encephalograph, which we used to calibrate their progress. "Well, what happened?" "Well, I went to an Italian restaurant and there was some garlic in my salad dressing!" So we had them sign things that they wouldn't touch garlic before classes or we were wasting their time, their money and my time. I guess some of you ... are pilots or have been in flight tests... I was in flight test engineering in Doc Hallan's group in the 1950s. The flight surgeon would come around every month and remind all of us: "Don't you dare touch any garlic 72 hours before you fly one of our airplanes, because it'll double or triple your reaction time. You're three times slower than you would be if you'd not had a few drops of garlic." Well, we didn't know why for 20 years later, until I owned the Alpha-Metrics Corporation. We were building biofeedback equipment and found out that garlic usually desynchronises your brain waves. So I funded a study at Stanford and, sure enough, they found that it's a poison. You can rub a clove of garlic on your foot - you can smell it shortly later on your wrists. So it penetrates the body. This is why DMSO smells a lot like garlic: that sulphone hydroxyl ion penetrates all the barriers including the corpus callosum* in the brain. Any of you who are organic gardeners know that if you don't want to use DDT, garlic will kill anything in the way of insects. Now, most people have heard most of their lives garlic is good for you, and we put those people in the same class of ignorance as the mothers who at the turn of the century would buy morphine sulphate in the drugstore and give it to their babies to put 'em to sleep. If you have any patients who have low-grade headaches or attention deficit disorder [ADD], they can't quite focus on the computer in the afternoon, just do an experiment - you owe it to yourselves. Take these people off garlic and see how much better they get, very very shortly. And then let them eat a little garlic after about three weeks. They'll say "My God, I had no idea that this was the cause of our problems." And this includes the de-skunked garlics, Kyolic, some of the other products. Very unpopular, but I've got to tell you the truth. Also by Robert Beck: Physicist Robert C. Beck on Healing Cancer & Aids Via Blood Electrification. Reference & Glossary compiled by Healing Cancer Naturally based on material © 1994-2000 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and New Oxford Dictionary of English Corpus callosum A broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain. Electroencephalography Technique for recording and interpreting the electrical activity of the brain. The nerve cells of the brain generate electrical impulses that fluctuate rhythmically in distinct patterns. In 1929 Hans Berger of Germany developed an electroencephalograph, an instrument that measures and records these brain wave patterns. The recording produced by such an instrument is called an electroencephalogram, commonly abbreviated EEG. To make an EEG, electrodes are placed in pairs on the scalp. Each pair of electrodes transmits a signal to one of several recording channels of the electroencephalograph. This signal consists of the difference in the voltage between the pair. The rhythmic fluctuation of this potential difference is shown as peaks and troughs on a line graph by the recording channel. The EEG of a normal adult in a fully conscious but relaxed state is made up of regularly recurring oscillating waves known as alpha waves. When a person is excited or startled, the alpha waves are replaced by low-voltage, rapid, irregular waves. During sleep, the brain waves become extremely slow. Such is also the case when a person is in a deep coma. Other abnormal conditions are associated with particular EEG patterns. Irregular slow waves known as delta waves, for example, arise from the vicinity of a localized area of brain damage. Electroencephalography provides a means of studying how the brain works and of tracing connections between one part of the central nervous system and another. Its effectiveness as a research tool, however, is limited because it records only a small sample of electrical activity from the surface of the brain. Many of the more complex functions of the brain, such as those that underlie emotions and thought, cannot be related closely to EEG patterns. Electroencephalography has proved more useful as a diagnostic aid in cases of serious head injuries, brain tumours, cerebral infections, epilepsy, and various degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Garlic (Species Allium sativum) contains about 0.1 percent essential oil, the principal components of which are diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and allyl propyl disulfide. Hydroxyl Of or denoting the radical -OH, present in alcohols and many other organic compounds: a hydroxyl group. Sulfoxide Also called SULPHOXIDE, any of a class of organic compounds containing sulfur and oxygen and having the general formula (RR') SO, in which R and R' are a grouping of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The sulfoxides are good solvents for salts and polar compounds. The best-known sulfoxide is dimethyl (or methyl) sulfoxide (DMSO), which is prepared by aerial oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (a by-product of paper manufacture) in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. DMSO is used as a solvent in a wide variety of industrial processes, including the manufacture of polyacrylonitrile fibres, the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from refinery streams, the manufacture of certain pesticides, for industrial cleaning, and for paint stripping. It is also used as a solvent for drugs and antitoxins applied topically. The last use is based on its remarkable ability to penetrate animal tissues. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colourless and odourless liquid, boiling at 189°C (372°F). It is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol, and most organic solvents. Sulphone (US: sulfone) An organic compound containing a sulphonyl group linking two organic groups december 17, 2015 post
403 Science finds "tiny computers" embedded in skin We like to think that all our smarts are contained in our brain, but researchers at Umea University in Sweden have found that the neurons that extend into our fingertips perform the same sorts of calculations that take place in the cerebral cortex. In other words, what we’ve been told about our entire nervous system acting as a sort of network of data-collecting sensors that send that data back to the brain to be processed might not be quite right. In the abstract for a study published online August 31 by the journal Nature Neuroscience, J Andrew Pruszynski & Roland S Johansson write: “We submit that peripheral neurons in the touch-processing pathway, as with peripheral neurons in the visual-processing pathway, perform feature extraction computations that are typically attributed to neurons in the cerebral cortex.” Translation, please. “Somewhat simplified, it means that our touch experiences are already processed by neurons in the skin before they reach the brain for further processing,” says Pruszynski in a release. The study also describes the ability of skin neurons to relay what Pruszynski calls “geometric data” of touched objects. “Our work has shown that two types of first-order tactile neurons that supply the sensitive skin at our fingertips not only signal information about when and how intensely an object is touched, but also information about the touched object’s shape.” English: Complete neuron cell diagram. Neurons... Neurons: Smarter than we thought? (Photo credit: Wikipedia) december 19, 2015 post
409 Amazing Facts about the Brain Did you know that your brain needs to make an effort when you laugh at a joke and some people dreams are in black and white?! LET’S HAVE A LOOK AT SOME AMAZING FACTS ABOUT THE BRAIN: 1. It’s not true that we only use 10% of their brains. Each part of the brain has a purpose. 2. Have a headache? It’s not your brain that hurts. There aren’t any pain receptors in your brain. 3. Your brain is made up of about 75 percent water. 4. Wonder why you don’t act out your dreams? Your brain creates a hormone to stop you from doing this. 5. Most people have 4-7 dreams each night, and around 95% of dreams are forgotten by the time a person gets out of bed. 6. You are not dreaming if you snore. (debatable) 7. They call it beauty sleep for a reason. This is when your brain files away all your memories during the day. 8. You can’t tickle yourself and laugh because your brain knows it’s your own touch – as opposed to someone else tickling you. 9. It takes some effort to laugh at a joke – five different areas in your brain are involved. 10. Your brain consists of about 100 billion neurons. 11. Your brain makes up to 23 watts of power when you’re awake – enough for lightbulb. 12. You have around 70,000 thoughts per day. 13. Your brain indentifies image in 13 milliseconds. 14. A study of 1 million students in New York showed that students who ate lunches that did not include artificial flavors, preservatives, and dyes did 14 percent better on IQ tests than students who ate lunches with these additives. 15. There is a class of people known as supertasters who not only have more taste buds on their tongue, but whose brain is more sensitive to the tastes of foods and drinks. In fact, they can detect some flavors that others cannot. January 11, 2016 post
416 Science behind Yoga september 3, 2016 post
422 Pranayama Neurons and the Rhythm of Breath : Yoga and Neuroscience ‘Pranayama Neurons’ And The Rhythm Of Breath Aravindan Neelakandan - Apr 10, 2017, 2:38 pm The discovery of this sub-group of neurons and the creative study of them along with yogic practices may usher us into exciting new possibilities, into what Julian Huxley once called “science of human possibilities”. German physicist Albert Einstein, in a lesser-known declaration, once said: "I believe that energy is the basic force in creation. My friend Bergson calls it elan vital, the Hindus call it prana." Though the idea of prana as the energy substratum of the universe may be poetic, mystical and appealing to someone no less than Albert Einstein, the yogic techniques that harness prana may be something more localised and well within the neural circuits of our mammalian brains. What controls the respiratory rhythms in mammals was unknown till 1991, when a group of scientists (kinesiologists) studying body movements at University of California, Los Angeles, zeroed in on a group of neurons in 'a limited region of the ventral medulla', which is called technically 'the pre-Botzinger Complex'. They found that the neurons here are 'with voltage-dependent pacemaker-like properties', concluding that the respiratory rhythm in mammals come from these 'conditional bursting pacemaker neurons in the pre-Botzinger Complex'. Now more than 25 years down the line, the scientists have discovered a subgroup of neurons in the pre-Botzinger Complex which have the genes cadherin 9 (Cdh9) and are developing brain homeobox protein 1 (Dbx1). In an experiment to evaluate behavioural change, scientists used genetically modified mice in which the Cdh9/Dbx1 neurons were removed through a drug. What happened next baffled them. The animals became “unusually calm” reports Scientific American. Dr Kevin Yackle of the University of California, San Francisco, who is part of the team that is doing this research, calls this specific subset of neurons as “pranayama neurons”. The removal of the pranayama neurons seems to reduce the animals’ breathing. The behavioural change that accompanies this is interesting. Yackle says that the mice 'spent less time exploring and sniffing, and more time grooming themselves'. Interestingly, according to traditional yogic texts one important aim of meditation is to 'turn the quest inwards rather than outwards'. There seems to be a very physical neural correlate involved in such a shift in the exploration. Apart from the 'spiritual' dimension and reduction of stress what other advantages can such techniques bring to humanity? Last year, neurobiologist Dr Peter Lush (Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex) discovered an interesting aspect of yogic techniques. In the eighties, Benjamin Libet, who was a pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness, conducted a series of experiments with regard to free will which can elicit to this day raging controversies in the field of science as well as philosophy. Libet found that the unconscious brain activity for a decision starts almost half a second before a person consciously takes the decision. This “subjective timing of awareness of an intention to move” or the meta-cognition of intent as Dr Lush discovered seems to be the focus of meditation techniques. According to Dr Lush, “accurate metacognition, including of intentions” is one of the aims of yogic practice like mindfulness, and “it may lead to the development of finer grained higher order representations of intending”. Indeed, on testing groups practising this technique, he found that “the long-term practice of mindfulness may produce an earlier judgement of the time of an intention”. While mindfulness does not involve active control of the breathing rhythm as in pranayama, it does involve watchful awareness of breathing. Does the mere watching of breathing have its own effects on the pranayama neurons - a neurological equivalent of Heisenberg principle ? The discovery of this sub-group of neurons and the creative study of them along with yogic practices that have been developed over the millennia may usher us into exciting new possibilities, into what Julian Huxley once called “science of human possibilities”. ‘Prana' which Einstein conceived as the substratum of the universe may well be also the skillful harnessing of the little neural pulses coursing through a small group of neurons in the mammalian brains. Journals and magazines: Clare Wilson, Destroying a type of brain cell makes mice really chilled out, New Scientist, 30-March-2017 Diana Kwon, Meditation's Calming Effects Pinpointed in Brain, Scientific American, 30-March-2017 JC Smith et al, Pre-Botzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals, Science 01 Nov 1991 Jan-Marino Ramirez, The human pre-Bötzinger complex identified,Brain. 2011 Jan; 134(1): 8–10. Peter Lush et al, Metacognition of intentions in mindfulness and hypnosis, Journal of Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2016, 1–10 april 12, 2017 post
429 Scientific Study on Meditation Meditation changes the structure of your brain, cuts stress in half according to new study Friday, October 20, 2017 by: Russel Davis A recent study published in Science Advances has revealed that practicing mental activities such as meditation and mindfulness training may help reduce stress levels by half. Mental training techniques have been gaining steam due in part to their apparent efficacy in decreasing a person’s stress levels and promoting key values such as attention and mindfulness or social competencies including compassion and perspective-taking. However, it remains unclear what type of mental activity works best in improving mental health markers such as structural brain plasticity and brain network changes. A team of researchers at the Department of Social Neuroscience at the Max Planck Institute of Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany, has carried out the large-scale ReSource Project in order to identify the most effective mental health activity. The project makes use of three 3-month training modules, each focusing on a single discipline. The first module has discussed mindfulness-based attention and interoception where the participants were given instructions on classical meditation techniques. The second module has focused on socio-affective competencies including compassion, gratitude and responding to difficult emotions. The third module has tacked socio-cognitive abilities such as metacognition and perspective-taking. The exercises have been carried out 30 minutes a day for six days a week. The researchers have then conducted brain scans to examine the patients’ stress levels. (Related: Stunning research finds that yoga and meditation literally “repair” your DNA to eliminate disease and depression.) Interesting study results show varying degrees of efficacy The results have shown that specific brain structures and related behavioral markers in patients have exhibited significant changes depending on the mental activity that has been practiced over the study period. According to the study, mindfulness-based attention training resulted in changes in the cortex in areas associated with attention and executive functioning. Likewise, computer-based tasks measuring executive attention were also found to improve the participants’ attention. The research team has also observed that participants who underwent a psychosocial stress test had 51 percent reduction in stress levels. However, only two exercises that focused on social competencies have effectively reduced cortisol release following a social stress test. “In the two social modules, focusing either on socio-affective or socio-cognitive competencies, we were able to show selective behavioral improvements with regard to compassion and perspective-taking. These changes in behavior corresponded with the degree of structural brain plasticity in specific regions in the cortex which support these capacities,” first author Sofie Valk has reported in Science Daily online. “The current results highlight not only that crucial social competencies necessary for successful social interaction and cooperation can still be improved in healthy adults and that such mental training leads to structural brain changes and to social stress reduction, but also that different methods of mental training have differential effects on the brain, on health, and behavior. It matters what you train. Once we have understood which mental training techniques have which effects, we will be able to employ these techniques in a targeted way to support mental and physical health,” lead author Professor Tania Singer stated in a Daily Mail article. According to the research team, the dyadic exercises practiced in the social modules may have played a big role in the lower cortisol response among participants. “The daily disclosure of personal information coupled with the non-judgmental, empathic listening experience may have “immunized” participants against the fear of social shame and judgment by others — typically a trigger of social stress,” study author Dr Veronika Engert adds. The experts have also discussed focusing on social connection and the “we” aspect of mental training in order to reduce susceptibility to social stress. Sources include: October 20, 2017 post
433 How does brain do some housekeeping-cleaning during sleep? The brain uses a quarter of the body's entire energy supply, yet only accounts for about two percent of the body's mass. So how does this unique organ receive and, perhaps more importantly, rid itself of vital nutrients? New research suggests it has to do with sleep. december 11, 2017 post
442 A Neuroscientist explores the "Sanskrit Effect" MRI scans show that memorizing ancient mantras increases the size of brain regions associated with cognitive function , according to a latest article published in Scientific American January, 2018 issue. A hundred dhoti-clad young men sat cross-legged on the floor in facing rows, chatting amongst themselves. At a sign from their teacher the hall went quiet. Then they began the recitation. Without pause or error, entirely from memory, one side of the room intoned one line of the text, then the other side of the room answered with the next line. Bass and baritone voices filled the hall with sonorous prosody, every word distinctly heard, their right arms moving together to mark pitch and accent. The effect was hypnotic, ancient sound reverberating through the room, saturating brain and body. After 20 minutes they halted, in unison. It was just a demonstration. The full recitation of one of India´s most ancient Sanskrit texts, the Shukla Yajurveda, takes six hours. I spent many years studying and translating Sanskrit, and became fascinated by its apparent impact on mind and memory. In India's ancient learning methods textual memorization is standard: traditional scholars, or pandits, master many different types of Sanskrit poetry and prose texts; and the tradition holds that exactly memorizing and reciting the ancient words and phrases, known as mantras, enhances both memory and thinking. I had also noticed that the more Sanskrit I studied and translated, the better my verbal memory seemed to become. Fellow students and teachers often remarked on my ability to exactly repeat lecturers’ own sentences when asking them questions in class. Other translators of Sanskrit told me of similar cognitive shifts. So I was curious: was there actually a language-specific “Sanskrit effect” as claimed by the tradition? When I entered the cognitive neuroscience doctoral program at the University of Trento (Italy) in 2011, I had the opportunity to start investigating this question. India's Vedic Sanskrit pandits train for years to orally memorize and exactly recite 3,000-year old oral texts ranging from 40,000 to over 100,000 words. We wanted to find out how such intense verbal memory training affects the physical structure of their brains. Through the India-Trento Partnership for Advanced Research (ITPAR), we recruited professional Vedic pandits from several government-sponsored schools in the Delhi region; then we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at India’s National Brain Research Center to scan the brains of pandits and controls matched for age, gender, handedness, eye-dominance and multilingualism. What we discovered from the structural MRI scanning was remarkable. Numerous regions in the brains of the pandits were dramatically larger than those of controls, with over 10 percent more grey matter across both cerebral hemispheres, and substantial increases in cortical thickness. Although the exact cellular underpinnings of gray matter and cortical thickness measures are still under investigation, increases in these metrics consistently correlate with enhanced cognitive function. Most interestingly for verbal memory was that the pandits' right hippocampus—a region of the brain that plays a vital role in both short and long-term memory—had more gray matter than controls across nearly 75 percent of this subcortical structure. Our brains have two hippocampi, one on the left and one on the right, and without them we cannot record any new information. Many memory functions are shared by the two hippocampi. The right is, however, more specialized for patterns, whether sound, spatial or visual, so the large gray matter increases we found in the pandits’ right hippocampus made sense: accurate recitation requires highly precise sound pattern encoding and reproduction. The pandits also showed substantially thickening of right temporal cortex regions that are associated with speech prosody and voice identity. Our study was a first foray into imaging the brains of professionally trained Sanskrit pandits in India. Although this initial research, focused on intergroup comparison of brain structure, could not directly address the Sanskrit effect question (that requires detailed functional studies with cross-language memorization comparisons, for which we are currently seeking funding), we found something specific about intensive verbal memory training. Does the pandits’ substantial increase in the gray matter of critical verbal memory organs mean they are less prone to devastating memory pathologies such as Alzheimer's? We don't know yet, though anecdotal reports from India's Ayurvedic doctors suggest this may be the case. If so, this raises the possibility that verbal memory “exercising‘ or training might help elderly people at risk of mild cognitive impairment retard or, even more radically, prevent its onset. If so, the training might need to be exact. One day I was filming four senior pandit teachers demonstrating the different recitation speeds. Partway into one session all four suddenly stopped. “What’s wrong?‘ I asked. “One of us made a slight error," came the response. "I don’t mind," I said. "Yes, but we do," and they restarted the entire recitation from the beginning. About the Author James Hartzell is a postdoctoral researcher at the Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, in Spain; a Guest Researcher at the Center for Mind/Brain Sciences at University of Trento, in Italy, and a Consultant for the Center for Buddhist Studies at Columbia University, in New York. January 7, 2018 post
446 Y4Y(Yoga for Youth)- Neohumanist Education Way (NEW) <strong> <strong>N</strong>eohumanist <strong>E</strong>ducation <strong>W</strong>ay (NEW)Y4Y (Yoga for Youth) Initiatives are bringing yoga to children in Asia, Europe and Americas. Leading educators are Ac.Kamaleshvar, Mahajyoti, Rudramohan, Didi Ananda rama, Didi Ananda Sainjana, Didi Ananda Siddeshwari, Dada Sadananda and many others around the globe.Dada Premamayanandaji has started Yoga for Senior Citizens and for thers too called Infiniti Yoga. Interested persons may contact: January 16, 2018 post
455 Infiniti Yoga takes off from Singapore Dada Premamayananda has registered trademark of Infiniti Yoga and initiated a series of courses for those who want to become teachers of Infiniti Yoga. Interested persons may contact him at: april 5, 2018 post
461 Meditation and Health Looking under the hood with fMRI, scientists have found that mindfulness meditation activates a network of brain regions that includes the insula (associated with compassion, empathy and self-awareness), the putamen (learning) and portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (regulating blood pressure, heart rate and other autonomic functions) and the prefrontal cortex (the hub of higher-order thinking skills such as planning, decision-making and moderating social behaviour). When it comes to actual structural changes in the brain, some studies suggest that mindfulness meditation may increase grey matter density in the hippocampus, a brain region essential to memory. Researchers including Britta Hölzel, now at the Technical University of Munich, and Sara Lazar of Massachusetts General Hospital found evidence for this in a 2011 study. Two studies by Creswell and his colleagues, one in 2015 and the other in 2016, offer some initial findings that seem to support their view of mindfulness meditation as a buffer against stress. Both studies focused on the physiological effects of mindfulness mediation training on small groups of unemployed adults experiencing stress. May 7, 2018 post
468 Hygiene of Emotion should be taught to children, says Dalai lama we need education, not prayer. we need to learn to overcome anger,hatred, jealousy and fear. message of love, forgiveness, tolerance,compassion, self-discipline,... all religions say the same !! Rituals without compassion is of little value. we need secular ethics. Antidote of selfcenterdness is love. May 18, 2018 post
476 Meditation in Schools Research conducted by the University of Melbourne in Australia showed that meditation in schools promoted wellbeing, cognitive functioning and academic achievement of students. Educ Psychol Rev (2015) 27:103–134 DOI 10.1007/s10648-014-9258-2 Contemplative Education: A Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of the effect of Meditation Interventions in Schools Lea Waters & Adam Barsky & Amanda Ridd & Kelly Allen Published online: 4 March 2014 # The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at Abstract Schools need reliable evidence about the outcomes of meditation programs before they consider if and how such programmes can influence learning agendas, curriculum and timetables. This paper reviewed evidence from 15 peer-reviewed studies of school meditation programmes with respect to three student outcomes: well-being, social competence and academic achievement. In total, there were 76 results where effect sizes could be calculated. The overall number of participants in the effect size analyses was 1,797. Of the 76 effect sizes calculated, 61 % were statistically significant. Sixty-seven per cent of the results had small effects on student outcomes, 24 % of the results had medium effect strength and 9 % showed a large effect of meditation upon student outcomes. Transcendental meditation programmes had a higher percentage of significant effects than mindfulness-based and other types of meditation programmes, but this may be to do with the settings and programme delivery rather than the technique itself. Programme elements such as duration, frequency of practice and type of instructor influenced student outcomes. A conceptual model is put forward based on two propositions: proposition 1—meditation positively influences student success by increasing cognitive functioning; proposition 2—meditation positively influences student success by increasing emotional regulation. Suggestions are made to stimulate future research and to assist in the development of more efficacious applications for meditation in schools. august 4, 2018 post
539 AMAYE Voices - our first newsletter is here! The first issue of our newsletter AMAYE Voices includes a synopsis of AMAYE's revival so far as well as this issues's News story, Profile of an educator, Academic article and "Ásana in focus". <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-534" src="" alt="" width="212" height="300" /></a> <a href="">Click here</a> to read the first issue of AMAYE Voices! March 30, 2019 post
545 Join the Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher Training this August! <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-548" src="" alt="" width="300" height="157" /></a> <h2>Ananda Marga Yoga Teacher Training (AMYTT)</h2> <h3>Professional yoga development and personal growth</h3> <strong><em>August 3 - 24, 2019 (Arrival August 2, Departure August 25)</em></strong> AMYTT is a 200-hour teacher-training program that provides immersion into a lifestyle of inner joy and universal love. Our training program teaches yoga as a transformational tool for spiritual awakening and betterment of the human society. This inspiring and comprehensive yoga training will deepen your personal practice and give you the tools to teach yoga to others. Through this training you can: • Deepen your personal yoga and meditation practice • Immerse yourself in an authentic yogic lifestyle • Learn how to teach a professional yoga class safely and effectively • Enjoy the support of a vibrant spiritual community • Understand the philosophical foundation that supports a yoga practice • Further your own physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual growth and well-being <p style="text-align: center;"><em>Don't let your friends miss this opportunity, share the <a href="">event on Facebook.</a></em></p> &nbsp; <strong>Accredited by Yoga Alliance</strong> Graduates of AMYTT receive internationally recognized certification. AMYTT is certified by Yoga Alliance for the 200-hour standard for Registered Yoga Schools (RYS). <strong>Training level and content</strong> The AMYTC program is open to yoga students of all levels, providing all participants with a strong foundation in yogic practices and philosophy from the Ananda Marga Tantra Yoga tradition. Experienced and professional faculty facilitate a strong and supportive learning environment that integrates postural yoga with anatomy, physiology, philosophy, cosmology, subtle anatomy, and effective teaching methods. Specifically, the curriculum includes: • Asana technique • Preparatory poses and modifications • Techniques to assist students to practice safely and with a good energetic alignment • Anatomy and physiology • The 8-limbed path of Astaunga Yoga, including spiritual ethics, breath control and meditation techniques • Relaxation techniques • Subtle anatomy and models of mind (chakras, koshas and prana) • Teaching methodology • Tantra history, philosophy and cosmology, including the philosophy of embodiment • Chanting • Self-massage <strong>Trainers</strong> <em>Dada Vishvarupananda, MSc, E-RYT 200, RYT 500.</em> Dada has been a monk in the Ananda Marga tradition for over 27 years and has given personal instruction to numerous aspirants during that time. Dada has received additional training with Ananda and Kripalu, and has a Master’s degree in Yoga Therapy. He has been teaching professionally since 2000 including college credit classes at George Washington University. He has facilitated numerous retreats and yoga teacher training programs throughout the world. <em>Dada Krsnasevananda E-RYT 200</em> Dada is a senior monk of Ananda Marga with 40 years experience teaching meditation and yoga around the world. Dada is currently the head teacher and program coordinator at Ananda Gaorii Ashram in Denmark and hosts a long-running and popular meditation course at the Ananda Marga center in Copenhagen. <strong>Daily Schedule</strong> Every day promises a full schedule with a comprehensive curriculum that includes plenty of opportunities for multi-dimensional learning and hands-on teaching. 6.00 Wake up 6:45- 8.00 Yoga class 8.00-9.00 Collective chanting and meditation 9.00-10.00 Breakfast + karma yoga (community service) 10.00-12:30 Workshop 12.30 Individual meditation 13.00-15.00 Lunch, free time 15.00-17.30 Workshop 17:30-18.00 Free time 18.00-19.00 Collective chanting and meditation 19.00-20.00 Dinner 20.00-21.30 Workshop 21:30 Good night! Note: Silence is observed from 6 to 10 AM <strong>Accommodation</strong> Ananda Gaori is located in rolling farmland that provides clean air, inspiring views and healthy walks. Accommodation includes dormitories and grassy fields for camping. Participants should bring their own sheets, sleeping bag, etc. Those who need more privacy and peace (and loud snorers) are encouraged to bring their own tent and camp. <strong>Registration</strong> To register you must pay the advanced booking fee (750 Dkk) or the full amount and then fill out the registration form (see link below). The full amount must be paid no later than July 20. The advanced booking fee is non-refundable. Cancellations prior to July 20 will be refunded the amount paid minus the advanced booking fee. Cancellations after July 20 will be refunded by half the amount. Click on this link to register (Note: Please only register after paying the deposit or the full amount): <a href="" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener noreferrer" data-lynx-mode="hover" data-lynx-uri=";h=AT0SJWli6GJOvocUaF_Gz4UeqIyNNdKq6ncg4HQKDH4C624RFKZw-PcQjbhoIBU-gt_omLSUzpil_E3-tk2yzDxEW8JwZedQTXOh5teYlx1J1D5q56QAgTjsAe99haSeLg5Oyns"></a> <strong>Cost</strong> Normal Price: 14,000 Danish Krone Early Bird price for registrations before 01 April: 11,000 Danish Krone Students, Unemployed, People traveling from outside Europe: 12,000 Danish Krone (10,000 before 01 April) How to Pay: By PayPal to By MobilePay to 10373 By Bank Transfer: Account Information Account name: Ananda Marga DK Kurser/Courses. Bank: Jyske Bank Account No.: 5018-0001348611 Swift/Bic: JYBADKKK IBAN: DK2350180001348611 NB! Please include the words "Yoga Teacher Training" in the message line. May 15, 2019 post
578 AMAYE Voices, Issue 02 - the second newsletter is here! <h3>Check out AMAYE Voices – Issue 02, October 2019</h3> This second issue of our newsletter includes some inspiring news, interesting information about the <em>kumbhaka</em> breath that we use in our ásana and sadhana practices, and much more… <a href=""><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-568" src="" sizes="(max-width: 212px) 100vw, 212px" srcset=" 212w, 768w, 724w, 1240w" alt="" width="212" height="300" /></a> <a href="">Click here</a> to read the second issue of AMAYE Voices. november 7, 2019 post
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